environmental challenges
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Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 129
Kwasi Gyau Baffour Awuah ◽  
Raymond T. Abdulai

The urban development and management challenges of the developing world are well documented in the literature. However, the global built environment landscape is undergoing rapid changes. These changes are steeped in three fundamental imperatives, which have serious implications for the developing world. These imperatives are population growth and rising urbanisation; environmental challenges, particularly climate change and the quest to embrace sustainability as a panacea; and advances in technological development. This paper discusses these three imperatives with the view to teasing out their implications for urban development and management in the developing world. Consistent with the literature, the paper establishes that most of the population growth and rising urbanisation are occurring in the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, and although these phenomena have the tendency to increase economic density and promote both private and public investment in urban development, especially construction/housing and related infrastructure activities, there are and will be several problems with them. These include land tenure insecurity, lack of access to decent affordable housing and the threat of destruction to heritage sites. Furthermore, environmental challenges such as poor waste management, and climate change are and will remain pressing issues requiring the adoption of sustainability credentials because of legislative requirements, moral suasion, and value addition. Despite the potential disruptive nature of technology with respect to some aspects of the built environment, it is recognised that advances in technology are essential to the achievement of optimal urban development and management outcomes in the developing world. The paper, therefore, recommends better understanding of the socio-economic, cultural, and political forces underlying urban growth in the developing world, factoring in technology and sustainability in urban development and management, and collaboration among relevant actors, particularly government and the private sector, for optimal outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 302 ◽  
pp. 113979
Ana Cristina González-Valoys ◽  
Jonatha Arrocha ◽  
Tisla Monteza-Destro ◽  
Miguel Vargas-Lombardo ◽  
José María Esbrí ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 252-268
Seyda Emekci

Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions have increased since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. This triggered an unnatural warming and the Earth's temperature which has increased dramatically in a short period of time. This brought many problems such as natural disasters, tropical cyclones, heavy precipitation events, extreme heat events, and drought. It is an urgent need to make all processes “sustainable” in order to protect the environment and human life. Since urban areas are estimated to be the source of approximately 80% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a significant proportion of these greenhouse gas emissions in urban areas originate from buildings, buildings should be considered as one of the first stops on the road to sustainability. The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the importance of sustainable architecture in addressing environmental challenges and ensuring sustainable urban development.

Julia Youngman ◽  
Megan F. Hess ◽  
Elicia Cowins

This case introduces students to the topic of contingent liabilities by examining the actual management decisions of two energy companies facing increased regulatory scrutiny over the environmental risks associated with coal ash.  The case learning objectives include: (1) researching and summarizing the guidance governing the recognition and disclosure of contingent liabilities; (2) critically assessing a company’s decisions regarding the recognition and disclosure of environmental liabilities; (3) accounting for asset retirement obligations; and (4) articulating the ethical implications of a company’s management and disclosure of environmental risks from the perspectives of various stakeholders.  The case is designed for use in an intermediate accounting course at the undergraduate level.  Students reported improvement in their knowledge and comprehension of contingent liabilities and their appreciation for the ethical implications of accounting decisions.  Students also noted that they enjoyed discussing these issues in the context of real companies facing complex environmental challenges.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ruiying Fu ◽  
Xuena Huang ◽  
Yiyong Chen ◽  
Zaohuang Chen ◽  
Aibin Zhan

Deoxyribonucleic acid methylation and gene transcription have been proved as two underlying mechanisms involved in rapid plastic response to environmental stresses. However, it remains elusive on how DNA methylation regulates gene transcription under acute and recurring environmental challenges to form the stress memory, further contributing to invasion success during range expansions. Using a model invasive species Ciona robusta, we investigated the regulatory roles of DNA methylation on gene transcription and their contribution to the formation of stress memory at 30 genes under acute and recurring osmotic challenges simulated during the invasion process. We found the bimodal distribution of methylation level for the 68 mCpGs identified across all the genes after challenges, but only five sites were significantly correlated with the expression of their corresponding genes. These genes participated in the biological processes of Ca2+ transport and metabolism of lipid and proline. At the DNA methylation level, we found two early-responding and four tardy-responding sites of stress memory and these sites were functionally related to genes involved in the biosynthesis of proline, metabolism of lipid, and transport of taurine and Ca2+. At the transcriptional level, three tardy-responding and five early-responding memory genes were involved in the transport of ions, regulation of water channels, biosynthesis of taurine, and metabolism of lipid. Altogether, the findings here suggest that DNA methylation and gene transcription should work in concert to facilitate the formation of stress memory, thus further improving the performance of invaders under recurring environmental challenges during biological invasions.

2021 ◽  
Nils C. Bandelow ◽  
Johanna Hornung ◽  
Ilana Schröder ◽  
Colette S. Vogeler

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