multidrug resistant
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Pedosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (3) ◽  
pp. 495-502
Author(s):  
João Pedro Rueda FURLAN ◽  
Inara Fernanda Lage GALLO ◽  
Eliana Guedes STEHLING

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
N. Sharif ◽  
D. Ahmed ◽  
R. T. Mahmood ◽  
Z. Qasim ◽  
S. N. Khan ◽  
...  

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
pp. 141-152
Author(s):  
Prachi Singh ◽  
Jenna Holmen

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gangyang Wang ◽  
Lingling Cao ◽  
Yafei Jiang ◽  
Tao Zhang ◽  
Hongsheng Wang ◽  
...  

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR)-related protein P-glycoprotein (PGP1), which actively extrudes chemotherapeutic agents from cells and significantly decreases the efficacy of chemotherapy, is viewed as a major obstacle in osteosarcoma chemotherapy. Anlotinib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has good anti-tumor effects in a variety of solid tumors. However, there are few studies on the mechanism of anlotinib reversing chemotherapy resistance in osteosarcoma. In this study, cellular assays were performed in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the MDR reversal effects of anlotinib on multidrug-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. Drug efflux and intracellular drug accumulation were measured by flow cytometry. The vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity of PGP1 was measured in the presence of a range of anlotinib concentrations. The protein expression level of ABCB1 was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. Our results showed that anlotinib significantly increased the sensitivity of KHOSR2 and U2OSR2 cells (which overexpress PGP1) to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in a KHOSR2 xenograft nude mouse model in vivo. Mechanistically, anlotinib increases the intracellular accumulation of PGP1 substrates by inhibiting the efflux function of PGP1 in multidrug-resistant cell lines. Furthermore, anlotinib stimulated the ATPase activity of PGP1 but affected neither the protein expression level nor the localization of PGP1. In animal studies, anlotinib in combination with doxorubicin (DOX) significantly decreased the tumor growth rate and the tumor size in the KHOSR2 xenograft nude mouse model. Overall, our findings suggest that anlotinib may be useful for circumventing MDR to other conventional antineoplastic drugs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Akihisa Hata ◽  
Noboru Fujitani ◽  
Fumiko Ono ◽  
Yasuhiro Yoshikawa

AbstractThere is a lack of an established antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance system in animal welfare centers. Therefore, the AMR prevalence in shelter dogs is rarely known. Herein, we conducted a survey in animal shelters in Chiba and Kanagawa prefectures, in the Kanto Region, Japan, to ascertain the AMR status of Escherichia coli  (E. coli) prevalent in shelter dogs. E. coli was detected in the fecal samples of all 61 and 77 shelter dogs tested in Chiba and Kanagawa, respectively. The AMR was tested against 20 antibiotics. E. coli isolates derived from 16.4% and 26.0% of samples from Chiba and Kanagawa exhibited resistance to at least one antibiotic, respectively. E. coli in samples from Chiba and Kanagawa prefectures were commonly resistant to ampicillin, piperacillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid; that from the Kanagawa Prefecture to cefazolin, cefotaxime, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin and that from Chiba Prefecture to chloramphenicol and imipenem. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected in 18 dogs from both regions; β-lactamase genes (blaTEM, blaDHA-1, blaCTX-M-9 group CTX-M-14), quinolone-resistance protein genes (qnrB and qnrS), and mutations in quinolone-resistance-determining regions (gyrA and parC) were detected. These results could partially represent the AMR data in shelter dogs in the Kanto Region of Japan.


Author(s):  
Laís Pessanha de Carvalho ◽  
Sara Groeger-Otero ◽  
Andrea Kreidenweiss ◽  
Peter G. Kremsner ◽  
Benjamin Mordmüller ◽  
...  

Boromycin is a boron-containing macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces antibioticus with potent activity against certain viruses, Gram-positive bacteria and protozoan parasites. Most antimalarial antibiotics affect plasmodial organelles of prokaryotic origin and have a relatively slow onset of action. They are used for malaria prophylaxis and for the treatment of malaria when combined to a fast-acting drug. Despite the success of artemisinin combination therapies, the current gold standard treatment, new alternatives are constantly needed due to the ability of malaria parasites to become resistant to almost all drugs that are in heavy clinical use. In vitro antiplasmodial activity screens of tetracyclines (omadacycline, sarecycline, methacycline, demeclocycline, lymecycline, meclocycline), macrolides (oleandomycin, boromycin, josamycin, troleandomycin), and control drugs (chloroquine, clindamycin, doxycycline, minocycline, eravacycline) revealed boromycin as highly potent against Plasmodium falciparum and the zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi. In contrast to tetracyclines, boromycin rapidly killed asexual stages of both Plasmodium species already at low concentrations (~ 1 nM) including multidrug resistant P. falciparum strains (Dd2, K1, 7G8). In addition, boromycin was active against P. falciparum stage V gametocytes at a low nanomolar range (IC50: 8.5 ± 3.6 nM). Assessment of the mode of action excluded the apicoplast as the main target. Although there was an ionophoric activity on potassium channels, the effect was too low to explain the drug´s antiplasmodial activity. Boromycin is a promising antimalarial candidate with activity against multiple life cycle stages of the parasite.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Md. Shamsul Alam ◽  
Md. Sabbir Hasan ◽  
Jannat Al Foisal ◽  
G. M. Arifuzzaman Khan ◽  
Rownok Jahan ◽  
...  

Abstract Modification of cellulose with silver nanoparticles produces various nanocomposites with significantly developed properties. This work aims to prepare a PVA hydrogel modified with cellulose/silver nanocomposites having potential applications in various fields including biomedical, antimicrobial inhibition, textile wears, etc. Microfibrillated cellulose/silver nanocomposites hydrogels were prepared in the aqueous medium with aid of microwave-assisted heating. Different percentages of nanocomposites were incorporated in PVA hydrogel to enhance the properties of PVA hydrogel. Prepared products were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, FTIR, TGA, XRD, and SEM. The swelling (in water saline, acidic and alkaline solution), tensile, thermal, and antibacterial properties were also examined. The formation of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the (MFC-Ag) NC was confirmed by XRD and UV–Vis spectra. UV–Vis spectra showed the characteristic peaks of Ag in the UV–Vis spectra at 425 nm. Final products exhibited significant porosity and maximum swelling of 519.44%. The thermal stability of hydrogel increased with an increased percentage of (MFC-Ag)NC. Hydrogels exhibited significant antimicrobial inhibition against multidrug-resistant microorganisms, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


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