population growth
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Author(s):  
I. M. Grod ◽  
I. V. Zagorodniuk ◽  
L. O. Shevchyk ◽  
N. Ya. Kravets

Monitoring and predicting the dynamics of abundance of species living in natural habitats is an important component stability analysis of ecosystem as well as dynamics and direction of change of biotic communities under global climate change and pressure of the alien species. The aim of the work was to build a matrix model and study the state of stabilisation of the dynamics of the bank vole population within the Leslie model. The object of the study was the population dynamics of Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780 = Clethrionomys glareolus auct. The study is based on materials obtained during 2017–2019. This period covered one phase of the long-term population dynamics of the bank vole, named “population growth”. The research was carried out according to generally accepted methods. A total of 6400 trap-days were processed, and 358 forest fistulas were collected and studied. The intensity of harmful activity of rodents is due to the variability of the number of animals in the population. The quantitative population changes are the result of three factors: births, deaths, and migrations. The main condition for the existence of the species is the stability of the population, which is determined by the action of thecompensatory mechanisms. The growth phase of the bank vole lasted all three years of the research, the quantitative indicators were respectively: 2017 – 1.8 individuals per 100 trap-days; 2018 – 2.0 individuals per 100 trap-days; 2019 – 2.7 individuals per 100 trap-days. Low levels of the abundance in the spring of each year of the study, namely at the beginning of the breeding season (3.7 – 2.6 – 8.9 individuals per 100 trap-days). Favourable for the abundance growth was the sex ratio of the population (approximately 1:1), with some rise in the share of females, which decreases on the period of spring 2018 to autumn 2019). Some decrease in the share of immature individuals (4.5 – 3.9 – 3.1 %) is an indirect confirmation of the stability of puberty of animals with subsequent replenishment of the "stock", which led to accelerated reproduction and, consequently, provided prerequisites for further population growth. The causal mechanisms of population control established by us, without a doubt, can serve as a basis for further prognosis, of the number of pests in natural habitats. To predict population changes, the Leslie model, which is widely used in mathematical analyses of the abundance of both plant and animal groups, was chosen. The algorithm for building a matrix model, detailed in the article, has five following steps. The exponential nature of the actual and projected growth of the bank vole population during the five-year cycle (2017–2019 with a prognosis until 2023) revealed in the analysis can be explained not so much by the power of the species' reproductive potential as by the lack of the significant changes in habitat, caused by constant weather conditions, low individual mortality from predators and non-communicable diseases or other accidents. The application of the matrix model allowed to confirm the key role of the main compensatory mechanisms of population dynamics, as they contribute to the stabilisation of the population and, as a consequence, are an important condition for the existence of the species.


Author(s):  
James Okorocha

Abstract: The effect of population growth on urban housing is a global challenge but the worst examples are found in the developing world which has led to an increased growth of poorly planned cities in the developing world, and loss of aesthetics. The aim of this research is to assess the level of population pressure on urban housing within Ngwa Road, Ohanku and Obohia environs in Aba South local government area in Abia State. The research evaluated housing demand and supply in the area, condition of houses in the area, factors encouraging population growth in the study area and level of compliance of buildings with town planning laws. The study area has an estimated 2021 population of 138017 as projected from 88,951 in 2016 with a growth rate of 2.94%. The research data was collected through household survey, Aba South Town Planning Authority, National Population Commission and the Aba South Street Naming and House Numbering Office. The simple random sampling technique and the purposive sampling technique were employed by the researcher with a sample size of 399.9 at 0.05 confidence level which was determined using the Taro Yamane method for sample size collection. The Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Principle Component Regression (PCR), standard deviation, weighted mean, percentages/proportions to analyze the data collected. The Principal Component Analysis result showed that component I have the highest loading with eigen value of 6.721 while component II has an eigen value of 3.279. The result showed that ease of access to commercial activities and educational level of heads of households are major factors encouraging population growth in the study area. The research revealed a housing demand and supply cluster estimate of 60.11% which was not considered statistically high. The average response of 93.2% is that houses in the study area are in a poor condition. The Aba South town planning authority revealed a 0.741 standard deviation which shows a high level of non-compliance with town planning laws. The research hypothesis was tested using Spearman Rank Correlation test at 0.05 level of confidence and the null hypothesis was accepted. Looking at the Land-UseLand-Cover images of the area obtained for 3 epochs from 1980-2020, the study area experienced an major growth in rate of housing stock after year 2000 and with increasing population growth, the area may soon be unable to carry the population that will be found there. This research calls the attention of the Abia State government in particular and the federal government in general to address these challenges through recommended public-private partnership and decentralization of pull factors. These recommendat


2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lalasia Bialic-Murphy ◽  
Tiffany M. Knight ◽  
Kapua Kawelo ◽  
Orou G. Gaoue

The reintroduction of rare species in natural preserves is a commonly used restoration strategy to prevent species extinction. An essential first step in planning successful reintroductions is identifying which life stages (e.g., seeds or large adults) should be used to establish these new populations. Following this initial establishment phase, it is necessary to determine the level of survival, growth, and recruitment needed to maintain population persistence over time and identify management actions that will achieve these goals. In this 5-year study, we projected the short- and long-term population growth rates of a critically endangered long-lived shrub, Delissea waianaeensis. Using this model system, we show that reintroductions established with mature individuals have the lowest probability of quasi-population extinction (10 individuals) and the highest increase in population abundance. However, our results also demonstrate that short-term increases in population abundances are overly optimistic of long-term outcomes. Using long-term stochastic model simulations, we identified the level of natural seedling regeneration needed to maintain a positive population growth rate over time. These findings are relevant for planning future reintroduction efforts for long-lived species and illustrate the need to forecast short- and long-term population responses when evaluating restoration success.


Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 129
Author(s):  
Kwasi Gyau Baffour Awuah ◽  
Raymond T. Abdulai

The urban development and management challenges of the developing world are well documented in the literature. However, the global built environment landscape is undergoing rapid changes. These changes are steeped in three fundamental imperatives, which have serious implications for the developing world. These imperatives are population growth and rising urbanisation; environmental challenges, particularly climate change and the quest to embrace sustainability as a panacea; and advances in technological development. This paper discusses these three imperatives with the view to teasing out their implications for urban development and management in the developing world. Consistent with the literature, the paper establishes that most of the population growth and rising urbanisation are occurring in the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, and although these phenomena have the tendency to increase economic density and promote both private and public investment in urban development, especially construction/housing and related infrastructure activities, there are and will be several problems with them. These include land tenure insecurity, lack of access to decent affordable housing and the threat of destruction to heritage sites. Furthermore, environmental challenges such as poor waste management, and climate change are and will remain pressing issues requiring the adoption of sustainability credentials because of legislative requirements, moral suasion, and value addition. Despite the potential disruptive nature of technology with respect to some aspects of the built environment, it is recognised that advances in technology are essential to the achievement of optimal urban development and management outcomes in the developing world. The paper, therefore, recommends better understanding of the socio-economic, cultural, and political forces underlying urban growth in the developing world, factoring in technology and sustainability in urban development and management, and collaboration among relevant actors, particularly government and the private sector, for optimal outcomes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Author(s):  
Alan Both ◽  
Lucy Gunn ◽  
Carl Higgs ◽  
Melanie Davern ◽  
Afshin Jafari ◽  
...  

Confronted with rapid urbanization, population growth, traffic congestion, and climate change, there is growing interest in creating cities that support active transport modes including walking, cycling, or public transport. The ‘30 minute city’, where employment is accessible within 30 min by active transport, is being pursued in some cities to reduce congestion and foster local living. This paper examines the spatial relationship between employment, the skills of residents, and transport opportunities, to answer three questions about Australia’s 21 largest cities: (1) What percentage of workers currently commute to their workplace within 30 min? (2) If workers were to shift to an active transport mode, what percent could reach their current workplace within 30 min? and (3) If it were possible to relocate workers closer to their employment or relocate employment closer to their home, what percentage could reach work within 30 min by each mode? Active transport usage in Australia is low, with public transport, walking, and cycling making up 16.8%, 2.8%, and 1.1% respectively of workers’ commutes. Cycling was found to have the most potential for achieving the 30 min city, with an estimated 29.5% of workers able to reach their current workplace were they to shift to cycling. This increased to 69.1% if workers were also willing and able to find a similar job closer to home, potentially reducing commuting by private motor vehicle from 79.3% to 30.9%.


Author(s):  
Boureima KABORE ◽  
Germain W. P. OUEDRAOGO ◽  
Boureima YARBANGA ◽  
Sié KAM ◽  
Dieudonné Joseph BATHIEBO

Waste management and recycling is major problem in our developing countries for several reasons, including population growth. In Burkina Faso, various techniques for treating this garbage exist and among them, we can cite incineration. Incineration is a heat treatment of garbage that reduces the volume of the latter. This work relates to the experimental study of the incineration of paper waste from the incinerator of the University Press of Ouagadougou. The results of this study show that this device is very useful in that it allows the incineration of paper garbage produced by the printing press. It, therefore, has an environmental advantage because its use promotes better management of paper waste.


Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Author(s):  
Abdelaziz M. Okasha ◽  
Eman M. Eldib ◽  
Adel H. Elmetwalli ◽  
Aitazaz Ahsan Farooque ◽  
Zaher Mundher Yaseen ◽  
...  

Egypt has limited agricultural land, associated with the scarcity of irrigation water and rapid population growth. Hydroponic farming, seawater desalination and magnetic treatment are among the practical solutions for sustaining rapid population growth. In this regard, the main objective of the present research study was to design and construct a hierarchical engineering unit as a hydroponic farming system (soilless) to produce an iceberg lettuce crop using magnetically treated saline water. The treatments included four types of irrigation water: common irrigation water (IW1) with an electrical conductivity (EC) of 0.96 dS/m as a control treatment, magnetically treated common irrigation water (IW2) with an EC of 0.96 dS/m, saline water (IW3) with an EC of 4.56 dS/m and magnetically treated saline water (IW4) with an EC of 4.56 dS/m; three depletion ratios (DR) of field capacity (DR0 = 50%, DR1 = 60% and DR2 = 70%) and three slopes of hydroponic pipes (S1 = 0.0%, S2 = 0.025% and S3 = 0.075%). The results revealed that seawater contributed 7.15% to produce iceberg lettuce in the hydroponic system. The geometric parameter, the slope of the pipes, influenced the obtained luminous intensity by an average increase of 21% and 71% for S2 and S3, respectively, compared with the zero slope (horizontal pipes). Magnetization of irrigation water increased the total soluble solids (TSS) and enhanced the fresh weight and water productivity of both iceberg lettuce varieties used. The maximum percentages of TSS were 5.20% and 5.10% for lemur and iceberg 077, respectively, for the combination IW4DR2S2. The highest values of fresh weight and water productivity of 3.10 kg/m and 39.15 kg/m3 were recorded with the combinations IW3DR2S3 and IW4DR1S3, respectively, for lemur and iceberg lettuce. The percentages of these increases were 109.46% and 97.78%, respectively, when compared with the combination IW1DR0S1. The highest values of iceberg lettuce 077 fresh weight and water productivity were 2.93 kg/m and 36.15 kg/m3, respectively, which were recorded with the combination IW4DR1S3. The percentages of these increases were 112.32% and 120.56%, respectively, when compared with IW1DR0S1 (the control treatment).


2022 ◽  

The focus of this article is on Metropolitan Manila (or simply Manila), a region spanning 619 square kilometers and comprising sixteen cities and one municipality: specifically, the cities of Caloocan, Las Piñas, Malabon, Manila, Mandaluyong, Marikina, Makati, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Quezon City, Parañaque, Pasay, Pasig, San Juan, Taguig, and Valenzuela, and the municipality of Pateros. Metro Manila was constituted by presidential decree in 1975, but its constituent cities are significantly older. It is the Philippines’ largest urban area, with a population of about thirteen million in 2015, as well as the country’s economic core, producing 37.5 percent of the national gross national product (GDP). Socially and spatially, however, it is not at all like the rest of the country, given its relative wealth and spectacular inequality—the latter owing less to the extent of inequality than to its spatial organization, a particularly intensive form of class segregation where upper- and middle-class residential and commercial enclaves abut the informal settlements of the urban poor as a general pattern. This landscape took shape as a result of four processes: rapid population growth beginning in the 1950s and 1960s, monumental city-building under the Marcos regime, democratization, and urban restructuring in the 1990s and 2000s. These processes constituted what are perhaps the city’s two main social actors, the urban poor and middle class. These labels are more conventional than accurate. Most of the “urban poor” are not poor by official standards, and the term “middle class” is much too vague. These groups find definition relationally, particularly in space, as “squatters” (slum dwellers) and “villagers” (enclave residents). This division, while fundamentally spatial, elaborated around the divide between formal and informal housing, has become the most important social division in the city since the late 20th century. Hence this article considers each group in some depth. While Metro Manila’s importance to the Philippines is clear, lamentably it has been largely overlooked as a source of urban theory. Manila provides an example par excellence of “late urbanization.” Analytically, it belongs with a set of cities in Latin America and Southeast Asia having undergone rapid population growth in the mid-20th century, resulting in urban landscapes distinguished by precarious work and informal housing. Second, it represents a particularly vivid case of urban space and social relations being restructured by market forces. The commodification of land and labor has proceeded relatively unimpeded in Manila, and class dynamics have crystallized in space relatively uncomplicated by racial and ethnic, religious, and other lines of division. As a result, class contention is especially intense, and class segregation is extreme. We might see in this landscape one possible urban future.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 324-359
Author(s):  
Alcinéia Miranda Campos ◽  
Francisco Gean Freitas do Nascimento ◽  
Helenilza Ferreira Albuquerque Cunha

We herein assess population growth in indigenous lands (ILs) Wajãpi, Uaçá, Galibi and Juminã in Amapá State-Brazil, which has influenced deforestation increase. We assumed the hypothesis of no association between demographic density and deforestation because population density in these areas is low. We used population growth, deaths, and deforestation data by considering a historical series (2002-2018). Demographic data have shown that Uaçá and Wajãpi ILs recorded the highest population growth. The highest demographic density was observed for Galibi ILs and the lowest one for Wajãpi ILs. The highest deforestation was observed for Uaçá ILs and the lowest one for Juminã ILs. Therefore, indigenous lands in Amapá State have an essential role in forest conservation.


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