It was not yet fully established whether the use of antiplatelet agents (APAs) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal post-polypectomy bleeding (PPB). Temporarily, discontinuation of APAs could reduce the risk of PPB, but at the same time, it could increase the risk of cardiovascular disease recurrence. This study aimed to assess the PPB risk in patients using APAs compared to patients without APAs or anticoagulant therapy who had undergone colonoscopy with polypectomy.
A systematic electronic search of the literature was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and CENTRAL, to assess the risk of bleeding in patients who do not interrupt single antiplatelet therapy (P2Y12 inhibitors or aspirin) and undergone colonoscopy with polypectomy.
Of 2417 identified articles, 8 articles (all of them were non-randomized studies of interventions (NRSI); no randomized controlled trials (RCT) were available on this topic) were selected for the meta-analysis, including 1620 patients on antiplatelet therapy and 13,321 controls. Uninterrupted APAs single therapy was associated with an increased risk of PPB compared to the control group (OR 2.31; CI 1.37–3.91). Patients on P2Y12i single therapy had a higher risk of both immediate (OR 4.43; CI 1.40–14.00) and delayed PPB (OR 10.80; CI 4.63–25.16) compared to the control group, while patients on aspirin single therapy may have a little to no difference increase in the number of both immediate and delayed PPB events.
Uninterrupted single antiplatelet therapy may increase the risk of PPB, but the evidence is very uncertain. The risk may be higher in delayed PPB. However, in deciding to discontinue APAs before colonoscopy with polypectomy, the potential higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events should always be assessed.
Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy (PRA) has several advantages over transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy (TLA) regarding operative time, blood loss, postoperative pain, and recovery. However, it can be a technically challenging procedure. To improve patient selection for PRA, we developed a preoperative nomogram to predict operative time.
All consecutive patients with tumors of ≤ 7 cm and a body mass index (BMI) of < 35 kg/m2 undergoing unilateral PRA between February 2011 and March 2020 were included in the study. The primary outcome was operative time as surrogate endpoint for surgical complexity. Using ten patient variables, an optimal prediction model was created, with a best subsets regression analysis to find the best one-variable up to the best seven-variable model.
In total 215 patients were included, with a mean age of 52 years and mean tumor size of 2.4 cm. After best subsets regression analysis, a four-variable nomogram was selected and calibrated. This model included sex, pheochromocytoma, BMI, and perinephric fat, which were all individually significant predictors. This model showed an ideal balance between predictive power and applicability, with an R2 of 38.6.
A four-variable nomogram was developed to predict operative time in PRA, which can aid the surgeon to preoperatively identify suitable patients for PRA. If the nomogram predicts longer operative time and therefore a more complex operation, TLA should be considered as an alternative approach since it provides a larger working space. Also, the nomogram can be used for training purposes to select patients with favorable characteristics when learning this surgical approach.