polyethylene glycol
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2022 ◽  
Vol 238 ◽  
pp. 111583
Yanfang Dong ◽  
Hao Liu ◽  
Nan Zhang ◽  
Jinzhi Zhou ◽  
Xiyu Pan

Pallavi Dan ◽  
Swetha Senthilkumar ◽  
Devanand Venkatsubbu Gopinath ◽  
Sahabudeen Sheik Mohideen

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 771
Anusha Wei Asohan ◽  
Rokiah Hashim ◽  
Ku Marsilla Ku Ishak ◽  
Zuratul Ain Abdul Hamid ◽  
Nurshafiqah Jasme ◽  

In this study, we aimed to prepare and characterise hydrogel formulations using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), alginate (Alg), and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). The CNC/Alg/PEGDA formulations were formed using a double network crosslinking approach. Firstly, CNC was extracted from oil palm trunk, and the size and morphology of the CNCs were characterised using TEM analysis. Secondly, different formulations were prepared using CNCs, Alg, and PEGDA. The mixtures were crosslinked with Ca2+ ions and manually extruded using a syringe before being subjected to UV irradiation at 365 nm. The shear-thinning properties of the formulations were tested prior to any crosslinking, while the determination of storage and loss modulus was conducted post extrusion after the Ca2+ ion crosslink using a rheometer. For the analysis of swelling behaviour, the constructs treated with UV were immersed in PBS solution (pH 7.4) for 48 h. The morphology of the UV crosslinked construct was analysed using SEM imaging. The extracted CNC exhibited rod-like structures with an average diameter and length of around 7 ± 2.4 and 113 ± 20.7 nm, respectively. Almost all CNC/Alg/PEGDA formulations (pre-gel formulation) displayed shear-thinning behaviour with the power-law index η < 1, and the behaviour was more prominent in the 1% [w/v] Alg formulations. The CNC/Alg/PEGDA with 2.5% and 4% [w/v] Alg displayed a storage modulus dominance over loss modulus (G′ > G″) which suggests good shape fidelity. After the hydrogel constructs were subjected to UV treatment at 365 nm, only the F8 construct [4% CNC: 4% Alg: 40% PEGDA] demonstrated tough and flexible characteristics that possibly mimic the native articular cartilage property due to a similar water content percentage (79.5%). In addition, the small swelling ratio of 4.877 might contribute to a minimal change of the 3D construct’s geometry. The hydrogel revealed a rough and wavy surface, and the pore size ranged from 3 to 20 µm. Overall, the presence of CNCs in the double network hydrogel demonstrated importance and showed positive effects towards the fabrication of a potentially ideal 3D bioprinted scaffold.

2022 ◽  
Valeria Timganova ◽  
Svetlana Zamorina ◽  
Maria Bochkova ◽  
Anton Nechaev ◽  
Pavel Khramtsov ◽  

Graphene oxide (GO) is very useful for biomedicine, due to its physicochemical properties; therefore, its interaction with cells of the immune system has beenextensively studied. Many studies have aimed toreduce the undesirable effects of GO through chemical modification, including through polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating. Neutrophils are the first to respond to foreign object invasion in the body. Their main functions are the uptake and destruction of foreign particles, including with the help of reactive oxygen species (ROS).Our study aimed to investigate theengulfment of unmodified graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide coated with polyethylene glycol (GO-PEG) by human neutrophils and the effect of nanosheets on the production of ROS.We used sheets of GO (Ossila, Great Britain, average plate size 1-5 μm) and GO-PEG (569 ± 14 nm, PEG coating≈ 20%) at concentrations of 12.5μg/mL, 25μg/mL, and 50 μg/mL. The uptake of nanosheets was assessed by flow cytometry, taking into account the level of background adhesion of nanoparticles. ROS production was evaluated by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LCL).It was found that GO (12.5μg/mL, 25μg/mL, and 50 μg/mL) was actively internalized by neutrophils, while the uptake of GO-PEG was not detected. GO and GO-PEG particles (25 μg/mLand 50 μg/mL) reduced the total production of ROS by human leukocytes.Thus, the modifying of GOnanosheets with PEG resulted in the abolishment of their active uptake by neutrophils but did not affect the GO inhibitory effect on their oxidative activity. Keywords: graphene oxide surface modification, pegylated graphene oxide nanosheets, nanoparticle uptake, human neutrophils, of reactive oxygen species

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