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2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (4) ◽  
pp. e0703-e0703
Helena Gómez-Martínez ◽  

Aim of study: In a social context of increasing concern about healthy diets, the development of new varieties with enhanced content in nutraceutical compounds is an important objective of the fruit breeding programs currently developed. In this sense, apricot is a fruit crop very appreciated by consumers worldwide due to its organoleptic characteristics, but also plays an important role in human nutrition due to its content of phytocompounds as sugars, organic acids, vitamins and polyphenols. Area of study: The identification of sources of variation for these traits could be useful for apricot breeding worldwide. Material and methods: New selections from the apricot breeding program carried out at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA, Spain) and traditional varieties have been analysed aimed at identifying sources of genetic variation for fruit quality. For this purpose, sugar content, organic acids and ascorbic acid were studied during three crop years. Main results: Results revealed sucrose and glucose as the major sugars, malic and citric acid as the main organic acids, and diverse ascorbic acid content among the cultivars studied. Research highlights: Some accessions point as potential sources to increase fruit quality. In addition, the study showed that apricot peel is an excellent source of nutraceutical compounds. Moreover, this study opens up new possibilities to study the genetic control of these traits in apricot in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 221 (2) ◽  
Anabella Aguilera ◽  
Federico Berdun ◽  
Carlos Bartoli ◽  
Charlotte Steelheart ◽  
Matías Alegre ◽  

Ferroptosis is an oxidative and iron-dependent form of regulated cell death (RCD) recently described in eukaryotic organisms like animals, plants, and parasites. Here, we report that a similar process takes place in the photosynthetic prokaryote Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in response to heat stress. After a heat shock, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells undergo a cell death pathway that can be suppressed by the canonical ferroptosis inhibitors, CPX, vitamin E, Fer-1, liproxstatin-1, glutathione (GSH), or ascorbic acid (AsA). Moreover, as described for eukaryotic ferroptosis, this pathway is characterized by an early depletion of the antioxidants GSH and AsA, and by lipid peroxidation. These results indicate that all of the hallmarks described for eukaryotic ferroptosis are conserved in photosynthetic prokaryotes and suggest that ferroptosis might be an ancient cell death program.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2539
Sami Hannachi ◽  
Stefaan Werbrouck ◽  
Insaf Bahrini ◽  
Abdelmuhsin Abdelgadir ◽  
Hira Affan Siddiqui ◽  

An efficient regeneration protocol was applied to regenerate shoots on salt stress-tolerant calli lines of aubergine (Solanum melongena). These NaCl-tolerant cell lines were obtained by two different methods. On the one hand, the developed callus tissue was transferred to a medium with a continuous salt content of 40, 80, 120, or 160 mM NaCl. On the other hand, the callus tissue was subjected to a stepwise increasing salinity to 160 mM NaCl every 30 days. With the second method, calli which could be selected were characterized by compact growth, a greenish color, and absence of necrotic zones. When grown on salt-free medium again, NaCl-tolerant calli showed a decline in relative growth rate and water content in comparison to the control line. This was more obvious in the 120 mM NaCl-tolerant callus. Lipid peroxidase activity increased in 40 and 80 mM NaCl-tolerant calli; yet did not increase further in 120 mM-tolerant callus. An increase in ascorbic acid content was observed in 80 and 120 mM NaCl-tolerant calli compared to the 40 mM NaCl-tolerant lines, in which ascorbic acid content was twice that of the control. All NaCl-tolerant lines showed significantly higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) (208–305–370 µmol min−1 mg−1 FW) and catalase (CAT) (136–211–238 µmol min−1 mg−1 FW) activities compared to control plants (231 and 126 µmol min−1 mg−1 FW). Plants were regenerated on the calli lines that could tolerate up to 120 mM NaCl. From the 32 plants tested in vitro, ten plants with a higher number of leaves and root length could be selected for further evaluation in the field. Their high salt tolerance was evident by their more elevated fresh and dry weight, their more increased relative water content, and a higher number and weight of fruits compared to the wild-type parental control. The presented work shows that somaclonal variation can be efficiently used to develop salt-tolerant mutants.

Anisha Priya Lobo ◽  
K. V. Arpitha ◽  
Krisha D. Shetty ◽  
Shobitha T. Rai ◽  
Prashant Nayak ◽  

Coconut water widely consumed as a health drink by people around the world. This led to an urge to study various properties of Cocus nucifera. We evaluated anti oxidant and phyto chemical constituents of two variety of coconut the yellow and green variety. Phytochemical assays showed the presence of terpinoids, alkaloids, resin, sugars, steroids, glycosides and tannins in both the dwarfs but yellow variety showed more amount of photochemical constituents. In both the variety of coconut water antioxidants were found. In the assay of DPPH, scavenging of nitric oxide assay and scavenging of hydrogen peroxide the presence of antioxidants were proved against the standard ascorbic acid. Results found yellow variety to be more potent antioxidant. All assays proved yellow dwarf was healthier than green dwarfs with more health benefits and medicinal properties.

2021 ◽  
Nguyen Phuoc Minh

Banana is a delicious fruit with excellent nutrient components beneficial for human health. In postharvest, banana fruit is quickly ripe within few days at ambient temperature condition and its quality is seriously degraded afterwards. Extension of its stability during storage and distribution is very necessary to enhance its economic value. This research evaluated the effectiveness of CaCl2 treatment on the physicochemical quality attributes, phyto-chemical and antioxidant activities, and potential enzymes of banana fruit during storage. Banana fruits were dipped in 3% CaCl2 solution for 5 min before draining on racks for 30 min at ambient temperature to remove excess calcium chloride solution. Another banana group is dipped in clean water, leaved on racks for 30 min as the control. Both these fruit groups were then stored at 4±0.5oC with 85-90% relative humidity for 28 days. In 7 day-interval, each group is taken to verify quality attributes such as decay index, firmness, extractable juice recovery, ascorbic acid, carotenoid, total soluble solid, phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging rate, H2O2 content, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of banana fruit during storage. Our findings demonstrated that CaCl2 exerted a positive influence in limiting decay (2.24±0.11 mark); slowing down texture firmness reduction (7.25±0.10 N); enhancing the extractable juice recovery (85.49±1.12%); controlling ascorbic acid (12.79±0.13 mg/100 g), total soluble solid (16.40±0.13 oBrix), phenolic retention (161.35±1.19 mg GAE/100 g), flavonoid content (64.41±0.25 mg QE/100 g) and H2O2 accumulation (20.09±0.10 µmol/g); improving carotenoid (21.83±0.13 µg/100 g), catalase (15.28±0.12 U/g), superoxide dismutase activity (5.60±0.10 U/g), antioxidant capacity of banana fruit (46.20±0.15%) during chilling storage. CaCl2 treatment would be an effective approach to extend shelf life of banana fruit in commercial distribution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Han Zhang ◽  
Yanqing Xia ◽  
Peng Zhang ◽  
Liqian Hou ◽  
Ying Sun ◽  

The pair [IrCl6]2–/[IrCl6]3– has been demonstrated to be a good redox probe in biological systems while L-ascorbic acid (AA) is one of the most important antioxidants. D-isoascorbic acid (IAA) is an epimer of AA and is widely used as an antioxidant in various foods, beverages, meat, and fisher products. Reductions of [IrCl6]2– by AA and IAA have been analyzed kinetically and mechanistically in this work. The reductions strictly follow overall second-order kinetics and the observed second-order rate constants were collected in the pH region of 0 ≤ pH ≤ 2.33 at 25.0°C. Spectrophotometric titration experiments revealed a well-defined 1 : 2 stoichiometry, namely Δ[AA] : Δ[Ir(IV)] or Δ[IAA] : Δ[Ir(IV)] = 1 : 2, indicating that L-dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) and D-dehydroisoascorbic acid (DHIA) were the oxidation products of AA and IAA, respectively. A reaction mechanism is suggested involving parallel reactions of [IrCl6]2– with three protolysis species of AA/IAA (fully protonated, monoanionic, and dianionic forms) as the rate-determining steps and formation of ascorbic/isoascorbic and ascorbate/isoascorbate radicals; in each of the steps, [IrCl6]2– acquires an electron via an outer-sphere electron transfer mode. Rate constants of the rate-determining steps have been derived or estimated. The fully protonated forms of AA and IAA display virtually identical reactivity whereas ascorbate and isoascorbate monoanions have a significant reactivity difference. The ascorbate and isoascorbate dianions are extremely reactive and their reactions with [IrCl6]2– proceed with the diffusion-controlled rate. The species versus pH and the species reactivity versus pH distribution diagrams were constructed endowing that the ascorbate/isoascorbate monoanionic form dominated the total reactivity at physiological pH. In addition, the value of pKa1 = 3.74 ± 0.05 for IAA at 25.0°C and 1.0 M ionic strength was determined in this work.

Nguyen Phuoc Minh

Decay on mango (Mangifera indica) fruit mostly derived from a fungal disease which was caused by anthracnose invasion and infestation. The falling quality of mango fruit during postharvest preservation was commonly associated with weight loss, softening, vitamin C degradation and decay. This research evaluated the synergistic effect of methyl cellulose (MC) and carvacrol (Car) in the preparation of the edible coating on the physicochemical and microbial characteristics of mango fruit during 28 days of storage at 18°C. Five groups of coating treatments were prepared as follows: A (4% MC), B (4% MC + 0.5% Car), C (4% MC + 0.75% Car), D (4% MC + 1.0% Car), E (4% MC + 1.25% Car). These coating solutions were set 40°C for mango dipping. Mango fruits were individually dipped in the respected MC-Car solutions for 15 s and left out to air-condition for 30 min to create the coating film. These mango fruits were then kept at 18°C for 28 days. In 7 day-interval, experimental fruits were sampled to estimate weight loss, firmness, ascorbic acid content, decay index. Mango fruit pre-coated by 4% MC + 1.0% Car showed the least weight loss (1.61±0.03 %) and decay index (2.19±0.03 mark) while the highest retention of firmness (47.13±0.23 N) and ascorbic acid (25.60±0.13 mg/100 g) at the end of 28 days of storage. Results showed that incorporation of 1.0% carvacrol into 4% methyl cellulose-based edible coating would extend the shelf-life of mango fruit for 28 days of preservation. The edible coating would be a promising and green alternative with minimal environmental pollution.

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