Hypotension is often occurring after induction of general anesthesia (IGA) and can cause organ hypoperfusion and ischemia which associated with adverse outcomes in patients having both cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. Elderly patients are particularly more vulnerable and at increased risk to the depressant effect of anesthetic drugs. So, recognition and prevention of such event are of clinical importance. This study recruited patients aged above 60 years, with ASA physical status classification I-II-III who were scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia with the aim to assess the effectiveness of preoperative IVC ultrasonography in predicting hypotension which develops following IGA and its association with the volume status in elderly patients receiving general anesthesia, through measurements of the maximum inferior vena cava diameter (dIVCmax), minimum inferior vena cava diameter (dIVCmin), inferior vena cava collapsibility index (IVC-CI), and basal and post-induction mean arterial pressure (MAP).
Thirty-nine (44.3%) of the 88 patients developed hypotension after IGA, and it was significantly more in patients who did not receive preoperative fluid (p = 0.045). The cut-off for dIVCmax was found as 16.250 mm with the ROC analysis. Specificity and sensitivity for the cut-off value of 16.250 mm were calculated as 61.2% and 76.9%, respectively. The cut-off for IVC-CI was found as 33.600% with the ROC analysis. Specificity and sensitivity for the cut-off value of 33.600% were calculated as 68.7% and 87.2%, respectively.
IVC ultrasonography may be helpful in the prediction of preoperative hypovolemia in elderly patients in the form of high IVC-CI and low dIVCmax. The incidence of hypotension was lower in patients who received fluid infusion before IGA.
<b><i>Background:</i></b> Patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) generally have a microinflammatory state. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hemodialysis (HD) combined with hemoperfusion (HP) on microinflammatory state in elderly patients with MHD. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> One hundred and fifty elderly patients with MHD were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group. The control group received simple HD treatment, and the observation group received combined HD + HP treatment on the basis of the control group. After 6 months of continuous treatment, the patients were evaluated to compare the quality of life, inflammation, adverse reactions, and nutritional indicators in the 2 groups before and after treatment. <b><i>Results:</i></b> There was no significant difference in the quality of life between the 2 groups before treatment. After treatment, the scores of psychological aspects, physiological aspects, social aspects, environmental aspects, and independent ability in the observation group were higher than those in the control group, with statistical significance (<i>p</i> < 0.05). There was no statistical significance in the level of inflammation between 2 groups before treatment. After treatment, the levels of hs-CRP, Hcy, IL-6, and TNF-α in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group, with statistical significance (<i>p</i> < 0.05). The incidence of dry mouth, skin reaction, neuritis, and subcutaneous tissue fibrosis in the observation group was lower than that in the control group, with statistical significance (<i>p</i> < 0.05). There was no statistical significance in nutritional level indexes between 2 groups before treatment (<i>p</i><sub>1</sub> > 0.05). After treatment, the levels of hemoglobin, total protein, albumin, and transferrin in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, with statistical significance (<i>p</i> < 0.05). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> The clinical effect of HD combined with HP in elderly MHD patients is significant, which can effectively reduce the incidence of adverse reactions and inflammation in the patients and improve the quality of life and nutritional indicators of the patients.
Objectives To assess the outcomes of a conservative management approach to radiation-induced urethral stricture disease (R-USD) in an elderly population with comorbidities. Methods Patients with R-USD managed with endoscopic procedures and/or clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) between 2007 and 2019 were included. Patients were excluded if they had an obliterative stricture, prior urethral reconstruction/urinary diversion surgery, or < 3 months follow-up. Primary outcome measures were urinary tract infection (UTI), acute urinary retention (AUR), serum creatinine, uroflowmetry/post-void residual, and urinary incontinence (UI). Failure was defined as progression to reconstructive surgery or permanent indwelling catheterization. Results Ninety-one men were analyzed with a median follow-up of 15.0 months (IQR 8.9 to 37.9). Median age was 75.4 years (IQR 70.0 to 80.0), body mass index was 26.5 kg/m2 (IQR 24.8 to 30.3), and Charlson comorbidity index was 6 (IQR 5 to 8). Median stricture length was 2.0 cm (IQR 2.0 to 3.0). Stricture location was bulbar (12%), bulbomembranous (75%), and prostatic (13%). A total of 90% underwent dilation, and 44% underwent direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU). For those that underwent these procedures, median number of dilations and DVIUs per patient was 2 (IQR 1 to 5) and 1 (IQR 1 to 3), respectively. Forty percent used CIC. Thirty-four percent developed a UTI, and 15% had an AUR episode requiring urgent treatment. Creatinine values, uroflowmetry measurements, and UI rates remained stable. Eighty percent avoided reconstructive surgery or indwelling catheterization. Conclusion Most elderly patients with comorbidities with R-USD appear to be effectively managed in the short-term with conservative strategies. Close observation is warranted because of the risk of UTIs and AUR. The potential long-term consequences of repetitive conservative interventions must be considered.