Background:Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that can cause severe invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs). The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the serotype and sequence type (ST) distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence of S. pneumoniae strains causing IPD in China.Methods: A total of 300 invasive S. pneumoniae isolates were included in this study. The serotype, ST, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the strains, were determined by the Quellung reaction, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and broth microdilution method, respectively. The virulence level of the strains in the most prevalent serotypes was evaluated by a mouse sepsis model, and the expression level of well-known virulence genes was measured by RT-PCR.Results: The most common serotypes in this study were 23F, 19A, 19F, 3, and 14. The serotype coverages of PCV7, PCV10, PCV13, and PPV23 vaccines on the strain collection were 42.3, 45.3, 73.3 and 79.3%, respectively. The most common STs were ST320, ST81, ST271, ST876, and ST3173. All strains were susceptible to ertapenem, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin, but a very high proportion (>95%) was resistant to macrolides and clindamycin. Based on the oral, meningitis and non-meningitis breakpoints, penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP) accounted for 67.7, 67.7 and 4.3% of the isolates, respectively. Serotype 3 strains were characterized by high virulence levels and low antimicrobial-resistance rates, while strains of serotypes 23F, 19F, 19A, and 14, exhibited low virulence and high resistance rates to antibiotics. Capsular polysaccharide and non-capsular virulence factors were collectively responsible for the virulence diversity of S. pneumoniae strains.Conclusion: Our study provides a comprehensive insight into the epidemiology and virulence diversity of S. pneumoniae strains causing IPD in China.
Prediction of inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) at high risk for severe adverse events (SAEs) requiring higher-intensity treatment is critical. However, evidence regarding prediction rules applicable to all patients with CAP including those with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is limited. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a new prediction system for SAEs in inpatients with CAP.
Logistic regression analysis was performed in 1334 inpatients of a prospective multicenter study to develop a multivariate model predicting SAEs (death, requirement of mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support within 30 days after diagnosis). The developed ALL-COP-SCORE rule based on the multivariate model was validated in 643 inpatients in another prospective multicenter study.
The ALL-COP SCORE rule included albumin (< 2 g/dL, 2 points; 2–3 g/dL, 1 point), white blood cell (< 4000 cells/μL, 3 points), chronic lung disease (1 point), confusion (2 points), PaO2/FIO2 ratio (< 200 mmHg, 3 points; 200–300 mmHg, 1 point), potassium (≥ 5.0 mEq/L, 2 points), arterial pH (< 7.35, 2 points), systolic blood pressure (< 90 mmHg, 2 points), PaCO2 (> 45 mmHg, 2 points), HCO3− (< 20 mmol/L, 1 point), respiratory rate (≥ 30 breaths/min, 1 point), pleural effusion (1 point), and extent of chest radiographical infiltration in unilateral lung (> 2/3, 2 points; 1/2–2/3, 1 point). Patients with 4–5, 6–7, and ≥ 8 points had 17%, 35%, and 52% increase in the probability of SAEs, respectively, whereas the probability of SAEs was 3% in patients with ≤ 3 points. The ALL-COP SCORE rule exhibited a higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.85) compared with the other predictive models, and an ALL-COP SCORE threshold of ≥ 4 points exhibited 92% sensitivity and 60% specificity.
ALL-COP SCORE rule can be useful to predict SAEs and aid in decision-making on treatment intensity for all inpatients with CAP including those with HCAP. Higher-intensity treatment should be considered in patients with CAP and an ALL-COP SCORE threshold of ≥ 4 points.
This study was registered with the University Medical Information Network in Japan, registration numbers UMIN000003306 and UMIN000009837.