Weight Loss
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

38594
(FIVE YEARS 17787)

H-INDEX

237
(FIVE YEARS 64)

AIDS ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 35 (Supplement 2) ◽  
pp. S189-S195
Author(s):  
Shahini Shah ◽  
Victoria Pilkington ◽  
Andrew Hill

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Malini Prasad ◽  
Victoria Mark ◽  
Chanel Ligon ◽  
Roxanne Dutia ◽  
Nandini Nair ◽  
...  

<i>Objective</i>: The role of the gut in diabetes remission after gastric bypass (RYGB) is incompletely understood. We therefore assessed the temporal change in insulin secretory capacity after RYGB, using oral and intravenous (IV) glucose, in individuals with type 2 diabetes. <p><i>Research Design and Methods:</i> Longitudinal, prospective measures of β-cell function after oral glucose and IV graded glucose infusion in individuals with severe obesity and diabetes studied at 0, 3 (n=29), 12 (n=24) and 24 (n=20) months after RYGB. Data were collected between 2015 and 2019 in an academic clinical research center.</p> <p><i>Results</i>: The decreases in body weight, fat mass, waist circumference and insulin resistance after surgery (all p<0.001 at 12 and 24 months), did not differ according to diabetes remission status. In contrast, both the magnitude and temporal changes in β-cell glucose sensitivity after oral glucose differed by remission status (p=0.04): greater (6.5 fold, p<0.01) and sustained in full remitters, moderate and not sustained past 12 months in partial remitters (3.3 fold, p<0.001), minimal in non-remitters (2.7 fold, p=ns). The improvement in β-cell function after IV glucose was not apparent until 12 months, significant only in full remitters, and only ~1/3 of that observed after oral glucose.</p> <p>Pre-intervention β-cell function and its change after surgery predicted remission; weight loss and insulin sensitivity did not. </p> <p><i>Conclusion</i>: Our data show the time course of changes in β-cell function after RYGB. The improvement in β-cell function after RYGB, but not changes in weight loss or insulin sensitivity, drives diabetes remission.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
NATURE LABS
Keyword(s):  

Trim Life Keto Natural Ketosis Weight Loss Support can assist you with thinning down quick! We as a whole heft around additional fat.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ana Elena Espinosa De Ycaza ◽  
Esben Søndergaard ◽  
Maria Morgan-Bathke ◽  
Kelli Lytle ◽  
Danae A. Delivanis ◽  
...  

The role of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation on AT function in humans is unclear. We tested whether AT macrophage (ATM) content, cytokine gene expression and senescent cell burden (markers of AT inflammation) predict AT insulin resistance measured as the insulin concentration that suppresses lipolysis by 50% (IC<sub>50</sub>). We studied 86 volunteers with normal weight or obesity at baseline, and a subgroup of 25 volunteers with obesity before and after weight loss. There was a strong, positive relationship between IC<sub>50 </sub>and abdominal subcutaneous and femoral fat cell size (FCS). The positive, univariate relationships between IC<sub>50 </sub>and abdominal AT inflammatory markers: CD68, CD14, CD206 ATM/100 adipocytes, senescent cells, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA were not significant after adjustment for FCS. A 10% weight loss significantly reduced IC<sub>50</sub>, however, there was no reduction in adipose ATM content, senescent cells or cytokine gene expression. Our study suggests that commonly used markers of AT inflammation are not causally linked to AT insulin resistance, whereas FCS is a strong predictor of AT insulin resistance with respect to lipolysis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Malini Prasad ◽  
Victoria Mark ◽  
Chanel Ligon ◽  
Roxanne Dutia ◽  
Nandini Nair ◽  
...  

<i>Objective</i>: The role of the gut in diabetes remission after gastric bypass (RYGB) is incompletely understood. We therefore assessed the temporal change in insulin secretory capacity after RYGB, using oral and intravenous (IV) glucose, in individuals with type 2 diabetes. <p><i>Research Design and Methods:</i> Longitudinal, prospective measures of β-cell function after oral glucose and IV graded glucose infusion in individuals with severe obesity and diabetes studied at 0, 3 (n=29), 12 (n=24) and 24 (n=20) months after RYGB. Data were collected between 2015 and 2019 in an academic clinical research center.</p> <p><i>Results</i>: The decreases in body weight, fat mass, waist circumference and insulin resistance after surgery (all p<0.001 at 12 and 24 months), did not differ according to diabetes remission status. In contrast, both the magnitude and temporal changes in β-cell glucose sensitivity after oral glucose differed by remission status (p=0.04): greater (6.5 fold, p<0.01) and sustained in full remitters, moderate and not sustained past 12 months in partial remitters (3.3 fold, p<0.001), minimal in non-remitters (2.7 fold, p=ns). The improvement in β-cell function after IV glucose was not apparent until 12 months, significant only in full remitters, and only ~1/3 of that observed after oral glucose.</p> <p>Pre-intervention β-cell function and its change after surgery predicted remission; weight loss and insulin sensitivity did not. </p> <p><i>Conclusion</i>: Our data show the time course of changes in β-cell function after RYGB. The improvement in β-cell function after RYGB, but not changes in weight loss or insulin sensitivity, drives diabetes remission.</p>


Author(s):  
Anie Naqvi ◽  
Michelle L. MacKintosh ◽  
Abigail E. Derbyshire ◽  
Anna-Maria Tsakiroglou ◽  
Thomas D. J. Walker ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The incidence of endometrial cancer is rising in parallel with the obesity epidemic. Obesity increases endometrial cancer risk and weight loss is protective, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We hypothesise that the immune microenvironment may influence susceptibility to malignant transformation in the endometrium. The aim of this study was to measure the impact of obesity and weight loss on the immunological landscape of the endometrium. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of women with class III obesity (body mass index, BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) undergoing bariatric surgery or medically-supervised low-calorie diet. We collected blood and endometrial samples at baseline, and two and 12 months after weight loss intervention. Serum was analysed for inflammatory markers CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α. Multiplex immunofluorescence was used to simultaneously identify cells positive for immune markers CD68, CD56, CD3, CD8, FOXP3 and PD-1 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded endometrial tissue sections. Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to determine whether changes in inflammatory and immune biomarkers were associated with weight loss. Results Forty-three women with matched serum and tissue samples at all three time points were included in the analysis. Their median age and BMI were 44 years and 52 kg/m2, respectively. Weight loss at 12 months was greater in women who received bariatric surgery (n = 37, median 63.3 kg) than low-calorie diet (n = 6, median 12.8 kg). There were significant reductions in serum CRP (p = 3.62 × 10−6, r = 0.570) and IL-6 (p = 0.0003, r = 0.459), but not TNF-α levels, with weight loss. Tissue immune cell densities were unchanged except for CD8+ cells, which increased significantly with weight loss (p = 0.0097, r = −0.323). Tissue CD3+ cell density correlated negatively with systemic IL-6 levels (p = 0.0376; r = −0.318). Conclusion Weight loss is associated with reduced systemic inflammation and a recruitment of protective immune cell types to the endometrium, supporting the concept that immune surveillance may play a role in endometrial cancer prevention.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Theodore A. Powers ◽  
Richard Koestner ◽  
Amanda Denes ◽  
Talea Cornelius ◽  
Amy A. Gorin

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ana Elena Espinosa De Ycaza ◽  
Esben Søndergaard ◽  
Maria Morgan-Bathke ◽  
Kelli Lytle ◽  
Danae A. Delivanis ◽  
...  

The role of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation on AT function in humans is unclear. We tested whether AT macrophage (ATM) content, cytokine gene expression and senescent cell burden (markers of AT inflammation) predict AT insulin resistance measured as the insulin concentration that suppresses lipolysis by 50% (IC<sub>50</sub>). We studied 86 volunteers with normal weight or obesity at baseline, and a subgroup of 25 volunteers with obesity before and after weight loss. There was a strong, positive relationship between IC<sub>50 </sub>and abdominal subcutaneous and femoral fat cell size (FCS). The positive, univariate relationships between IC<sub>50 </sub>and abdominal AT inflammatory markers: CD68, CD14, CD206 ATM/100 adipocytes, senescent cells, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA were not significant after adjustment for FCS. A 10% weight loss significantly reduced IC<sub>50</sub>, however, there was no reduction in adipose ATM content, senescent cells or cytokine gene expression. Our study suggests that commonly used markers of AT inflammation are not causally linked to AT insulin resistance, whereas FCS is a strong predictor of AT insulin resistance with respect to lipolysis.


Diabetologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jean Strelitz ◽  
Emma R. Lawlor ◽  
Yue Wu ◽  
Annabel Estlin ◽  
Giri Nandakumar ◽  
...  

Abstract Aims/hypothesis Weight loss is often recommended in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. While evidence has shown that large weight loss may lead to diabetes remission and improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, long-term impacts are unclear. We performed a systematic review of studies of weight loss and other weight changes and incidence of CVD among people with type 2 diabetes. Methods Observational studies of behavioural (non-surgical and non-pharmaceutical) weight changes and CVD events among adults with type 2 diabetes, and trials of behavioural interventions targeting weight loss, were identified through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) until 9 July 2019. Included studies reported change in weight and CVD and/or mortality outcomes among adults with type 2 diabetes. We performed a narrative synthesis of observational studies and meta-analysis of trial data. Results Of 13,227 identified articles, 17 (14 observational studies, three trials) met inclusion criteria. Weight gain (vs no change) was associated with higher hazard of CVD events (HRs [95% CIs] ranged from 1.13 [1.00, 1.29] to 1.63 [1.11, 2.39]) and all-cause mortality (HRs [95% CIs] ranged from 1.26 [1.12, 1.41] to 1.57 [1.33, 1.85]). Unintentional weight loss (vs no change) was associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality, but associations with intentional weight loss were unclear. Behavioural interventions targeting weight loss showed no effect on CVD events (pooled HR [95% CI] 0.95 [0.71, 1.27]; I2 = 50.1%). Risk of bias was moderate in most studies and was high in three studies, due to potential uncontrolled confounding and method of weight assessment. Conclusions/interpretation Weight gain is associated with increased risks of CVD and mortality, although there is a lack of data supporting behavioural weight-loss interventions for CVD prevention among adults with type 2 diabetes. Long-term follow-up of behavioural intervention studies is needed to understand effects on CVD and mortality and to inform policy concerning weight management advice and support for people with diabetes. PROSPERO registration CRD42019127304. Graphical abstract


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2493
Author(s):  
Baoyu Xiang ◽  
Liping Zhao ◽  
Menghui Zhang

Gut-microbiota-targeted nutrition intervention has achieved success in the management of obesity, but its underlying mechanism still needs extended exploration. An obese Prader–Willi syndrome boy lost 25.8 kg after receiving a high-fiber dietary intervention for 105 days. The fecal microbiome sequencing data taken from the boy on intervention days 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 105, along with clinical indexes, were used to construct a metagenome-scale metabolic network. Firstly, the abundances of the microbial strains were obtained by mapping the sequencing reads onto the assembly of gut organisms through use of reconstruction and analysis (AGORA) genomes. The nutritional components of the diet were obtained through the Virtual Metabolic Human database. Then, a community model was simulated using the Microbiome Modeling Toolbox. Finally, the significant Spearman correlations among the metabolites and the clinical indexes were screened and the strains that were producing these metabolites were identified. The high-fiber diet reduced the overall amount of metabolite secretions, but the secretions of folic acid derivatives by Bifidobacterium longum strains were increased and were significantly relevant to the observed weight loss. Reduced metabolites might also have directly contributed to the weight loss or indirectly contribute by enhancing leptin and decreasing adiponectin. Metagenome-scale metabolic network technology provides a cost-efficient solution for screening the functional microbial strains and metabolic pathways that are responding to nutrition therapy.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document