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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Aran A Groover ◽  
Natalia A Huang

Miliary Tuberculosis (TB) usually has an insidious clinical manifestation including fever, weight loss, night sweats, and little in the way of localizing symptoms or signs. There may be concurrent TB meningitis with associated symptoms. A 35-year old male has known case of pulmonary TB and HCV before three years ago. Presented to emergency department with Fever since 3-weeks ago, abdomen pain, headache since 10 days.

Nirvani S. Henrique ◽  
Katia L. Maltoni ◽  
Glaucia A. Faria

ABSTRACT Litterfall is an important source of soil nutrients, but its decomposition can be affected by the crop system used. The objective of this study was to evaluate litterfall decomposition and macronutrient stocks in coffee crop systems in shaded (SHCS) environments and those in full sun (FSCS). The experiment was conducted on a rural property in Cacoal, state of Rondônia, Brazil, in a 2 × 6 factorial scheme with two crop systems (SHCS and FSCS), and six litterfall decomposition evaluation times (0, 30, 60, 180, 300, and 360 days after the litterfall was returned to the soil (DAL)), with seven replicates. The constant of decomposition (k), half-life time (t1/2) at 360 DAL, and phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), and nitrogen (N) concentrations of the remaining litterfall were determined at each evaluation time. The litterfall in the SHCS had a greater weight loss and constant of decomposition and a lower half-life time at the last evaluation, and the weight loss increased as a function of decomposition time. The litterfall stocks of macronutrients N, P, K, Ca, and Mg showed a linear decrease throughout the decomposition time, and increases in sulfur stock were found at the last evaluation.

Mengying Wang ◽  
Qiaochu Xue ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Knut Krohn ◽  
Stefanie Ziesche ◽  

Abstract Purpose Little is known about the relations between changes in circulating microRNA-122 (miR-122) and liver fat in response to weight-loss interventions. We aimed to investigate the association between miR-122 and changes of hepatic fat content during 18-month diet and physical activity interventions. Methods The CENTRAL trial is an 18-month randomized, controlled trial among adults with abdominal obesity or dyslipidemia. Subjects were randomly assigned to a low-fat diet or a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diet. After six months of dietary intervention, each diet group was further randomized into added physical activity groups or no added physical activity groups for the following 12 months of intervention. The current study included 220 participants at baseline and 134 participants with repeated measurements on serum miR-122 and hepatic fat content over 18 months. Results Serum miR-122 significantly increased from baseline to 18 months, while no difference was observed across the four intervention groups. We found a significant association between miR-122 and hepatic fat content at baseline, as per unit increment in log-transformed miR-122 was associated with 3.79 higher hepatic fat content (P<0.001). Furthermore, we found that higher elevations in miR-122 were associated with less reductions in hepatic fat percentage during 18-month interventions (β=1.56, P=0.002). We also found a significant interaction between changes in miR-122 and baseline fasting plasma glucose with hepatic fat content changes in 18 months (P interaction=0.02). Conclusions Our data indicate that participants with higher elevation in serum miR-122 may benefit less in reduction of hepatic fat content in response to diet and physical activity interventions.

Ngan Thi Kim Nguyen ◽  
Nguyen-Phong Vo ◽  
Shih-Yi Huang ◽  
Weu Wang

Besides massive body weight loss, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) causes massive lean mass, including fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle mass (SM) that present higher metabolic rates in males. This study examines sex differences in FFM and SM changes of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remission at 12 months post-LSG. This cohort study recruited 119 patients (53.7% females) with T2D and obesity (body mass index 42.2 ± 7.0 kg/m2) who underwent LSG. Fat-mass (FM) loss was higher in males than in females (−12.8 ± 6.2% vs. −9.9 ± 5.0%, p = 0.02) after one-year post-operation. Regardless of the weight-loss difference, males had higher FFM and SM gain than did females (12.8 ± 8.0 vs. 9.9 ± 5.0% p = 0.02 and 6.5 ± 4.3% vs. 4.9 ± 6.2%, p = 0.03, respectively). Positive correlations of triglyceride reduction with FM loss (r = 0.47, p = 0.01) and SM gain (r = 0.44, p = 0.02) over 12 months post-operation were observed in males who achieved T2D remission. The T2D remission rate significantly increased 16% and 26% for each additional percentage of FFM and SM gain one year after LSG, which only happened in males. Increased FFM and SM were remarkably associated with T2D remission in males, but evidence lacks for females.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 216
Carmen Sorina Martin ◽  
Ovidiu Dumitru Parfeni ◽  
Liliana Gabriela Popa ◽  
Mara Madalina Mihai ◽  
Dana Terzea ◽  

Glucagonomas are neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) that arise from the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. They are typically slow-growing tumors associated with abnormal glucagon secretion, resulting in one or more non-specific clinical features, such as necrolytic migratory erythema (NME), diabetes, diarrhea, deep vein thrombosis, weight loss, and depression. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old male with a history of diabetes mellitus, presenting with a pruritic and painful disseminated cutaneous eruption of erythematous plaques, with scales and peripheral pustules, misdiagnosed as disseminated pustular psoriasis and treated for 2 years with oral retinoid and glucocorticoids. During this period, the patient complained of weight loss of 32 kg and diarrhea and developed deep vein thrombosis. These symptoms, together with an inadequate response to therapy of the skin lesions, led to the reassessment of the initial diagnosis. Laboratory tests confirmed elevated plasma glucagon levels (>1000 pg/mL) and computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a 35/44 mm tumor in the pancreatic tail. Due to considerable disease complications and the COVID-19 pandemic, the surgical removal of the tumor was delayed for nearly 2 years. During this time, somatostatin analogue therapy efficiently controlled the glucagonoma syndrome and likely prevented tumor progression. As in other functional pancreatic NETs, the early clinical recognition of hormonal hypersecretion syndrome and the multidisciplinary approach are the keys for best patient management.

Kelly Virecoulon Giudici ◽  
Sophie Guyonnet ◽  
John E Morley ◽  
Andrew D Nguyen ◽  
Geetika Aggarwal ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to investigate the interaction between weight loss (WL) and plasma amyloid-β42/40 (Aβ42/40), neurofilament light chain (NfL), progranulin, and their association with cognitive decline over time among older adults. This 5-year observational approach included 470 participants from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT), mean age 76.8y (SD=4.5), 59.4% women. WL was defined as ≥5% decrease over the first year. Biomarkers were measured at 12 months. Cognitive function was assessed yearly from 12 months onwards by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes (CDR-SB); a composite score based on Category Naming Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, ten MMSE orientation items (MMSEO) and Free and total recall of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding test; and these tests individually. Twenty-seven participants (5.7%) presented WL. In adjusted analyses, combined WL+lower Aβ42/40 (≤0.103, lowest quartile) was related with more pronounced 4-year cognitive decline according to CDR-SB (p<0.0001) and MMSEO (p=0.021), compared to non-WL+higher Aβ42/40. WL+higher NfL (>94.55pg/mL, highest quartile) or progranulin (>38.4ng/mL, three higher quartiles) were related with higher cognitive decline according to CDR-SB, MMSE, MMSEO and composite score (all p<0.03), compared to non-WL+lower NfL or higher progranulin. Regrouping progranulin quartiles (Q1-Q3 vs. Q4) revealed higher cognitive decline among the WL+lower progranulin group compared to non-WL+lower progranulin. In conclusion, 1-year WL was associated with subsequent higher 4-year cognitive decline among older adults presenting low Aβ42/40 or high NfL. Future studies combining plasma biomarker assessments and body weight surveillance may be useful for identifying people at risk of cognitive impairment.

2022 ◽  
Andrés Sánchez-Pernaute ◽  
Miguel Ángel Rubio Herrera ◽  
Natalia Pérez Ferré ◽  
Carlos Sáez Rodríguez ◽  
Clara Marcuello ◽  

Abstract Background Single-anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S) is a simplification of the duodenal switch (DS) in which the alimentary limb is eliminated, and the common channel is lengthened from 200 to 300 cm. Short-term results have demonstrated that SADI-S is safe and reproducible and that weight loss and comorbidities resolution are comparable to biliopancreatic diversion or DS. Objective To analyze the long-term outcomes of SADI-S. Methods From May 2007 to December 2015, 164 patients were consecutively submitted to a one-step SADI-S. The mean age was 47 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 45.8 kg/m2. A total of 101 patients had type 2 diabetes, 91 arterial hypertension, 81 obstructive apnea, and 118 dyslipidemia. Limb length was 200 cm in 50 cases, 250 cm in 99, and 300 cm in 15. Results There was no mortality. One patient had a gastric leak, and 2 patients had an anastomotic leak. A total of 25% of the patients were lost to follow-up at 10 years. Excess weight loss and total weight loss were 87% and 38% at 5 years and 80% and 34% at 10 years. A total of 12 patients were submitted to revisional surgery for hypoproteinemia. Preoperatively 41 diabetics were under insulin treatment; at 5 years, 7 remained with insulin and 12 at 10 years. Mean glycemia was 104 mg/dL at 5 years and 118 mg/dL at 10 years. Mean HbA1c was 5.51% at 5 years and 5.86 at 10 years. Conclusion In the long term, SADI-S offers satisfactory weight loss and comorbidities resolution. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Exipure not provided


2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
Antonio Nicolucci ◽  
Claudio Maffeis

AbstractThe dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has become a major public health problem. Obesity in children and young adults is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Obesity during adolescence represents a strong predictor of obesity and higher mortality in adulthood. Due to the serious implications of obesity in adolescents, effective treatments are urgently needed. Lifestyle interventions represent the recommended therapy. Nevertheless, real world data show that the majority of adolescents do not achieve weight loss in the long term, and are reluctant to participate in lifestyle interventions. Pharmacological treatment is recommended if a formal lifestyle modification program fails to limit weight gain or to improve comorbidities. However, until 2020 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) had not approved any pharmacotherapeutic agents for obesity in pediatric patients. On April 2021, EMA has authorized the use of Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analog, for the treatment of obesity in adolescents (12–17 years). The efficacy and safety of Liraglutide were demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind trial, enrolling 251 adolescents. After 56 weeks, a reduction in BMI of at least 5% was observed in 43.3% of participants in the liraglutide group vs. 18.7% in the placebo group, and a reduction in BMI of at least 10% was observed in 26.1 and 8.1%, respectively. Gastrointestinal events were the events most frequently reported with liraglutide. Bariatric surgery represents another effective treatment for adolescents with severe obesity, with sustained benefits on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, long-term safety and effectiveness data in adolescents are still scarce. Risks of bariatric surgery include the need for additional abdominal surgical procedures and specific micronutrient deficiencies. Hopefully, new pharmacological treatments in addition to lifestyle interventions will offer more chances of success.

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