univariate analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 629-640
Taiã Mairon Peixoto Ribeiro ◽  
Thássia Silva Reis ◽  
Sebastiana Adriana Pereira Sousa ◽  
Lucas Marlon Freiria ◽  

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. are protozoa that have a significant impact on animal health due to the diseases they cause in domestic and wild animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii and Neospora spp. in cats from northern Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 180 cats in the municipality of Araguaína, Tocantins and used to evaluate the presence of anti-T. gondii and anti-Neospora spp. antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test, with a cutoff of 1:64 and 1:25, respectively. The association between infection and individual animal characteristics (age, sex, origin, breed, and clinical signs) was tested using univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that 48.3% (87/180) of the animals had anti-T. gondii (95% CI: 40.8%–55.90%) and 3.9% (7/180) had anti-Neospora spp. (95% CI: 1.6%–7.8%) antibodies. There was no association between age, sex, breed origin, clinical signs, and seropositivity for T. gondii. Cats of defined breeds were more likely to be infected by Neospora spp. (OR = 10.7). Therefore, we found a high rate of seropositivity for T. gondii and a high rate of occurrence of Neospora infections in cats from the Araguaína region. The exposure of the feline population to the studied coccidia indicates the need to monitor the feline population for these infections and underscores the importance of effective sanitary measures against such pathogens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 255-260
Nadya Meta Harlinda ◽  
Bahar Khusni ◽  
Reido Dafa Annafis ◽  
Rayhan Muhammad Basyarahil ◽  
Widati Fatmaningrum

Introduction: COVID-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2), an outbreak in the world in 2019 until now. High cholesterol levels correlate with increasing disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection because there is a surge of cases in Gianyar Regency, a district of Taro Village. This study aimed to examine the relationship between age and gender to cholesterol levels which are expected to become information for the people of Taro Village as a basis for health screening to prevent comorbid diseases that increase mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infection and increase awareness of the people of Taro Village to maintain health and implement a healthy lifestyle. Method: Capillary blood was taken and then checked for cholesterol levels using a standardized tool on 44 respondents. The cholesterol check was conducted in Gianyar Regency, precisely in Taro Village, Tegalalang District, and Bali. The data obtained will be analyzed using univariate analysis followed by bivariate analysis using the Spearman correlation test for variables of age and cholesterol levels. In contrast, for variables gender and cholesterol levels, the Mann-Whitney test is performed. Results: A total of 44 individual respondents in this study, the distribution of data, namely the age of the repondent is more in the 41-50 year age group, the number of female respondents is 33 or 75.0% of the total respondent, and 70.5% of the respondent or 31 have normal cholesterol levels. The results of the Spearman test on the variables of age and cholesterol levels obtained a P value>0, 05, and the results of the Mann Withney test on the variables gender and cholesterol levels obtained a P value>0, 05. Conclusion: Most taro villagers have normal cholesterol levels obtained as many as 31 people, or 70.5% of the total respondent. It may be influenced by the work factor of taro villagers who work a lot in the agriculture and plantation sectors. Based on the study results, there is also no significant relationship between age and gender with the cholesterol levels of Taro Villagers. However, high cholesterol levels were only found in females as many as five people.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fei Zha ◽  
Jingjing Zhao ◽  
Cheng Chen ◽  
Xiaoqi Ji ◽  
Meng Li ◽  

ObjectivePoststroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is a serious complication of stroke. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of peripheral inflammation. The relationship between the NLR and PSCI is far from well studied, and the thesis of this study was to assess the predictive value of the NLR in patients with PSCI, and establish and verify the corresponding prediction model based on this relationship.MethodsA total of 367 stroke patients were included in this study. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and NLRs were measured at baseline, and clinical and neuropsychological assessments were conducted 3 months after stroke. The National Institutes of Health Scale (NIHSS) was used to assess the severity of stroke. A Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used for the assessment of cognitive function.ResultsAfter three months of follow-up, 87 (23.7%) patients were diagnosed with PSCI. The NLR was significantly higher in PSCI patients than in non-PSCI patients (P < 0.001). Patient age, sex, body mass index, NIHSS scores, and high-density lipoprotein levels also differed in the univariate analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, the NLR was an independent risk factor associated with the patients with PSCI after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.21–2.29, P = 0.002). The nomogram based on patient sex, age, NIHSS score, and NLR had good predictive power with an AUC of 0.807. In the validation group, the AUC was 0.816.ConclusionAn increased NLR at admission is associated with PSCI, and the model built with NLR as one of the predictors can increase prognostic information for the early detection of PSCI.

Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 179
Young-Jae Ryu ◽  
Seong-Young Kwon ◽  
Soo-Young Lim ◽  
Yong-Min Na ◽  
Min-Ho Park

Skip lymph node (LN) metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) belong to N1b classification in the absence of central neck LN involvement. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive factors of skip metastases and their impact on recurrence in PTC patients with pN1b. A total of 334 PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with LN dissection (central and lateral neck compartment) followed by radioactive iodine ablation were included. Patients with skip metastases tended to have a small primary tumor (≤1 cm) and single lateral neck level involvement. Tumor size ≤ 1 cm was an important predictive factor for skip metastases. Univariate analysis for recurrence showed that patients with a central LN ratio > 0.68, lateral LN ratio > 0.21, and stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels > 7.3 ng/mL had shorter RFS (recurrence-free survival). The stimulated Tg level was associated with shorter RFS on multivariate analysis (>7.3 vs. ≤7.3 ng/mL; hazard ratio, 4.226; 95% confidence interval, 2.226−8.022; p < 0.001). Although patients with skip metastases tended to have a small primary tumor and lower burden of lateral neck LN involvement, there was no association between skip metastases and RFS in PTC with pN1b. Stimulated Tg level was a strong predictor of recurrence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Mohammed M. Masoud ◽  
Hany A. Sayed ◽  
Hatem A. El Masry ◽  
Shaimaa A. Abdelkareem

Abstract Background and aim HCV infection is associated with increased risk of ischemic cerebral stroke. HCV stroked patients are younger with a lower burden of classical risk factors and higher levels of systemic inflammation. The present study aimed to discover the association between HCV infection functional outcome of stroke. Patients and methods The present prospective study included 60 patients with acute ischemic stroke. All patients were subjected to careful history taking and through clinical and neurological examination. Stroke severity at presentation was assessed using National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Quantitative HCV RNA test was used to diagnose HCV infection. The prognosis of the studied patients was 3 months after treatment using modified Rankin scale (mRS) for neurologic disability. Results The present study was conducted on 60 patients with ischemic stroke. They comprised 13 patients (21.7%) with HCV and 47 patients without. Stroke patients with HCV had significantly higher frequency of carotid artery stenosis, higher NIHSS (17.9 ± 6.9 versus 9.9 ± 5.3, p < 0.001) and higher frequency of severe stroke (46.1% versus 4.3%, p = 0.001) when compared with patients without HCV. Logistic regression analysis identified patients’ sex, NIHSS and HCV as significant predictors of outcome in univariate analysis. However, in multivariate analysis, only NIHSS proved to be significant. Conclusions The present study suggests a significant link between chronic HCV infection and ischemic stroke severity and poor outcome. This is probably related to the pathogenic effects of the chronic inflammatory state induced by HCV infection on the cerebral microvasculature.

Akitoshi Inoue ◽  
David J Bartlett ◽  
Narges Shahraki ◽  
Shannon P Sheedy ◽  
Jay P Heiken ◽  

Abstract Background We aimed to determine if patient symptoms and computed tomography enterography (CTE) and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) imaging findings can be used to predict near-term risk of surgery in patients with small bowel Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods CD patients with small bowel strictures undergoing serial CTE or MRE were retrospectively identified. Strictures were defined by luminal narrowing, bowel wall thickening, and unequivocal proximal small bowel dilation. Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) was recorded. Stricture observations and measurements were performed on baseline CTE or MRE and compared to with prior and subsequent scans. Patients were divided into those who underwent surgery within 2 years and those who did not. LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression models were trained and validated using 5-fold cross-validation. Results Eighty-five patients (43.7 ± 15.3 years of age at baseline scan, majority male [57.6%]) had 137 small bowel strictures. Surgery was performed in 26 patients within 2 years from baseline CTE or MRE. In univariate analysis of patients with prior exams, development of stricture on the baseline exam was associated with near-term surgery (P = .006). A mathematical model using baseline features predicting surgery within 2 years included an HBI of 5 to 7 (odds ratio [OR], 1.7 × 105; P = .057), an HBI of 8 to 16 (OR, 3.1 × 105; P = .054), anastomotic stricture (OR, 0.002; P = .091), bowel wall thickness (OR, 4.7; P = .064), penetrating behavior (OR, 3.1 × 103; P = .096), and newly developed stricture (OR: 7.2 × 107; P = .062). This model demonstrated sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 73% (area under the curve, 0.62). Conclusions CTE or MRE imaging findings in combination with HBI can potentially predict which patients will require surgery within 2 years.

2022 ◽  
Xueqian Wang ◽  
Xuejiao Ma ◽  
Mo Yang ◽  
Yan Wang ◽  
Yi Xie ◽  

Abstract Background Lung cancer was often accompanied by depression and anxiety. Nowadays, most investigations for depression and anxiety were concentrated in western medical hospitals, while few related studies have been carried out in the tradition Chinese medicine (TCM) ward. It was necessary to understand the prevalence and risk factors of depression and anxiety in the inpatients with lung cancer in TCM hospital. Methods This study adopted cross-sectional research method, which enrolled a total of 222 inpatients with lung cancer in TCM hospital. PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scales were used to assess depression and anxiety for the inpatients, respectively. Demographic and clinical data were also collected. Statistical methods of the univariate analysis and the multivariate logistic regression model were used. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety in the inpatients with lung cancer were 58.1% and 34.2%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis prompted that the common risk factor of depression and anxiety was the symptom of insomnia. Constipation and gender were the two anther risk factors of depression. Conclusion Depression and anxiety were common for the inpatients with lung cancer in TCM hospital. Gender, insomnia and constipation were risk factors for depression, and insomnia was risk factor for anxiety. Therefore, medical workers should pay close attention to the emotional changes of these high-risk patients and intervene the symptoms as early as possible.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000313482110680
Alexandra Hahn ◽  
Jessica Gorham ◽  
Alaa Mohammed ◽  
Brian Strollo ◽  
George Fuhrman

Purpose Surgery residency applications include variables that determine an individual’s rank on a program’s match list. We performed this study to determine which residency application variables are the most impactful in creating our program’s rank order list. Methods We completed a retrospective examination of all interviewed applicants for the 2019 match. We recorded United States Medical Licensing Examinations (USMLE) step I and II scores, class quartile rank from the Medical Student Performance Evaluation (MSPE), Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) membership, geographic region, surgery clerkship grade, and grades on other clerkships. The MSPE and letters of recommendation were reviewed by two of the authors and assigned a score of 1 to 3, where 1 was weak and 3 was strong. The same two authors reviewed the assessments from each applicant’s interview and assigned a score from 1-5, where 1 was poor and 5 was excellent. Univariate analysis was performed, and the significant variables were used to construct an adjusted multivariate model with significance measured at P < .05. Results Univariate analysis for all 92 interviewed applicants demonstrated that USMLE step 2 scores ( P = .002), class quartile rank ( P = .004), AOA status ( P = .014), geographic location ( P < .001), letters of recommendation ( P < .001), and interview rating ( P < .001) were significant in predicting an applicant’s position on the rank list. On multivariate analysis only USMLE step 2 ( P = .018) and interview ( P < .001) remained significant. Conclusion USMLE step 2 and an excellent interview were the most important factors in constructing our rank order list. Applicants with a demonstrated strong clinical fund of knowledge that develop a rapport with our faculty and residents receive the highest level of consideration for our program.

Mathilde Grosselin ◽  
Leila Bouazzi ◽  
Thomas Ferreira de Moura ◽  
Carl Arndt ◽  
Maxime Thorigny ◽  

While exposure to pesticides is a known risk factor for neurodegenerative brain diseases, little is known about the influence of environment on glaucoma neuropathy. We aimed to determine whether farmers are at higher risk of developing severe primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This retrospective cohort study (tertiary referral center, Reims University Hospital, France) included patients diagnosed with POAG in the last two years. Univariate analysis and adjusted multivariate logistic regression were performed to evaluate the association between agricultural profession and all recorded data. Glaucoma severity (primary outcome) and the number of patients who underwent filtering surgery (secondary outcome) were analyzed. In total, 2065 records were screened, and 772 patients were included (66 in the farmer group and 706 in the nonfarmer group). The risk of severe glaucoma was higher in the farmer group (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.87, p = 0.03). More patients underwent filtering surgery in the farmer group in univariate analysis (p = 0.02) but with no statistical significance after adjustment (p = 0.08). These results suggest pesticide exposure may be a factor accelerating the neurodegeneration in POAG, although a direct link between the agricultural profession and the disease requires further extended studies to be demonstrated.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261565
Helio Fayolle ◽  
Nina Jehanno ◽  
Valerie Lauwers-Cances ◽  
Marie-Pierre Castex ◽  
Daniel Orbach ◽  

Purpose Childhood RMS is a rare malignant disease in which evaluation of tumour spread at diagnosis is essential for therapeutic management. F-18 FDG-PET imaging is currently used for initial RMS disease staging. Materials and methods This multicentre retrospective study in six French university hospitals was designed to analyse the prognostic accuracy of MTV at diagnosis for patients with RMS between 1 January 2007 and 31 October 2017, for overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). MTV was defined as the sum of the primitive tumour and the largest metastasis, where relevant, with a 40% threshold of the primary tumour SUVmax. Additional aims were to define the prognostic value of SUVmax, SUVpeak, and bone lysis at diagnosis. Results Participants were 101 patients with a median age of 7.4 years (IQR [4.0-12.5], 62 boys), with localized disease (35 cases), regional nodal spread (43 cases), or distant metastases (23). 44 patients had alveolar subtypes. In a univariate analysis, a MTV greater than 200 cm3 was associated with OS (HR = 3.47 [1.79;6.74], p<0.001) and PFS (HR = 3.03 [1.51;6.07], p = 0.002). SUVmax, SUVpeak, and bone lysis also influenced OS (respectively p = 0.005, p = 0.004 and p = 0.007) and PFS (p = 0.029, p = 0.019 and p = 0.015). In a multivariate analysis, a MTV greater than 200 cm3 was associated with OS (HR = 2.642 [1.272;5.486], p = 0.009) and PFS (HR = 2.707 [1.322;5.547], p = 0.006) after adjustment for confounding factors, including SUVmax, SUVpeak, and bone lysis. Conclusion A metabolic tumor volume greater than 200 cm3, SUVmax, SUVpeak, and bone lysis in the pre-treatment assessment were unfavourable for outcome.

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