# average diameterRecently Published Documents

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2627
(FIVE YEARS 1241)

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53
(FIVE YEARS 15)

2022 ◽
Vol 12 (2) ◽
pp. 887
Author(s):
Ana Flavia Burlec ◽
Monica Hăncianu ◽
Irina Macovei ◽
Cornelia Mircea ◽
...
Keyword(s):

The present study reports an eco-friendly synthesis method of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using two different extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of Tagetes erecta flowers. When exposed to different biocompounds found in the plant, silver ions are reduced, thus, resulting in the green synthesis of nanoparticles. After performing the optimization of synthesis, the obtained AgNPs were characterized using various techniques. The UV–Vis spectrum of the synthesized nanoparticles showed maximum peaks at 410 and 420 nm. TEM analysis revealed that the particles were spherical with a size ranging from 10 to 15 nm, and EDX analysis confirmed the presence of silver metal. The average diameter value obtained through DLS analysis for the two types of AgNPs (obtained using aqueous and ethanolic extracts) was 104 and 123 nm. The Zeta potentials of the samples were −27.74 mV and −26.46 mV, respectively, which indicates the stability of the colloidal solution. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities assays showed that nanoparticles obtained using the aqueous extract presented enhanced antioxidant activity compared to the corresponding extract, with both types of AgNPs exhibiting improved antifungal properties compared to the initial extracts.

2022 ◽
Vol 27 (2) ◽
pp. 544
Author(s):
Oscar Cervantes ◽
Zaira del Rocio Lopez ◽
Norberto Casillas ◽
Peter Knauth ◽
Nayeli Checa ◽
...
Keyword(s):

A ferrofluid with 1,2-Benzenediol-coated iron oxide nanoparticles was synthesized and physicochemically analyzed. This colloidal system was prepared following the typical co-precipitation method, and superparamagnetic nanoparticles of 13.5 nm average diameter, 34 emu/g of magnetic saturation, and 285 K of blocking temperature were obtained. Additionally, the zeta potential showed a suitable colloidal stability for cancer therapy assays and the magneto-calorimetric trails determined a high power absorption density. In addition, the oxidative capability of the ferrofluid was corroborated by performing the Fenton reaction with methylene blue (MB) dissolved in water, where the ferrofluid was suitable for producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), and surprisingly a strong degradation of MB was also observed when it was combined with H2O2. The intracellular ROS production was qualitatively corroborated using the HT-29 human cell line, by detecting the fluorescent rise induced in 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. In other experiments, cell metabolic activity was measured, and no toxicity was observed, even with concentrations of up to 4 mg/mL of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). When the cells were treated with magnetic hyperthermia, 80% of cells were dead at 43 °C using 3 mg/mL of MNPs and applying a magnetic field of 530 kHz with 20 kA/m amplitude.

2022 ◽
Vol 8 (1) ◽
pp. 17-24
Author(s):
R. Brovko ◽
L. Mushinskii ◽
V. Doluda
Keyword(s):

The methanol into hydrocarbons transformation is a complex catalytic reaction accompanied by the formation of a wide range of hydrocarbons and proceeding on the surface of acid sites of various zeolites. Zeolite H-ZSM-5 considered to be most often used catalyst for this process. H-ZSM-5 is a highly dispersed material with a crystal diameter of 1–20 microns, which complicates its direct use in reactors with a fixed catalyst bed due to the high hydraulic pressure drop of the catalytic bed. Traditionally in industry, this issue is solved by using complex reactor systems with a fluidized bed, which is justified for large-scale production. In small and medium-size plants, the use of fluidized bed systems is not economically feasible. One of the possible solutions to this problem is the use of a monolithic catalyst with a supported layer of H-ZSM-5 zeolite. This article presents a study of the catalytic activity of a zeolite-containing microstructured monolith in methanol into hydrocarbons transformation. The monolith was synthesized by pressing a zeolite-containing mass followed by drying, calcining, and secondary growth of the zeolite on the monolith surface. A sample of a monolith with an average channel diameter of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 mm were synthesized this way. Samples of the microstructured catalyst were tested at varying temperatures from 250 to 450 °C and at varying the specific methanol feed rate from 0.65 to 2.3 kg (MeOH)/(kg (Cat) h). For this purpose, the monolithic catalyst was placed in a reactor for testing microstructured catalysts, which consisted of a pump, a temperature controller, a catalytic reactor, a condenser, a separating funnel, and a chromatograph. Varying the conditions showed that for the preferential production of gaseous C1–C4 hydrocarbons, it is advisable to carry out the reaction under the following conditions: the average diameter of the catalyst channels is 2 mm, the reaction temperature is 350 °C, the methanol feed rate is 1.65 kg (MeOH)/(kg (Cat) h). For the predominant formation of liquid hydrocarbons of the C5–C8 fraction, it is advisable to carry out the transformation of methanol into hydrocarbons under the following conditions: the average diameter of the catalyst channels is 1 mm, the reaction temperature is 350 °C, the methanol feed rate is 0.65 kg (MeOH) / (kg (Cat) h). For the predominant formation of liquid hydrocarbons of the C9–C12 fraction, it is advisable to carry out the transformation of methanol into hydrocarbons under the following conditions: the average diameter of the catalyst channels is 0.5 mm, the reaction temperature is 350 °C, and the methanol feed rate is 0.65 kg (MeOH) / (kg (Cat) h).

2022 ◽
Author(s):
khashayar vaezi ◽
Keyword(s):

Abstract ABSTRACT The study reports on the preparation of nanocrystalline cellulose from waste papers (WPNCC), as an environmental friendly approach of source material and investigation of their effects on the morphological, mechanical and barrier properties of the Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose/Cationic starch (HPMC/CS) nanocomposites. HCl hydrolysis followed by alkali treatment and deinking of the fibers resulted in the production of WPNCC. The TEM results confirmed the rod like shape of WPNCC; the average diameter was 22± 7 nanometers and the length was 125± 25 nanometers. The hydrolysis yield was 65% with high crystallinity index of 79.6%. The results of X-ray diffraction confirmed the successfully production of WPNCC and their effective presence in the HPMC/CS matrix. The homogeneity of WPNCC dispersion in the polymer matrix was approved by FESEM analysis. The WPNCC also did not affect the nanocomposites optical clarity. The optimum amount of 9 wt% WPNCC, showed the highest barrier, mechanical and biodegradablility properties.

2022 ◽
pp. 000313482110540
Author(s):
Jae Hee Cho ◽
M Jason Akers ◽
Mehrnaz Siavoshi ◽
Todd Gress ◽
Errington C Thompson
Keyword(s):

Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevant findings in adult patients admitted to Cabell Huntington Hospital who were diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Methods: Patients who had the postoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis and a preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan from January 2011 through December 2016 were included in this retrospective chart review. Results: There were 592 patients. A thick, edematous appendix was the most common CT finding in acute appendicitis. The average diameter was 12.6 mm. The wall thickness correlated to the diameter of the appendix ( P < 0.001). For comparison, we reviewed the CT scans of 50 trauma patients who had normal abdominal CT scans. The average diameter of a normal appendix was 4.9 mm (SD 1.139) with a range of 4-7 mm. Interestingly, the admission white blood cell count ( P = 0.0372) as well as the thickness of the appendix ( P < 0.0001) were strongly associated with increased length of stay. Conclusions: An appendiceal diameter greater than 9 mm should be considered abnormal and associated with acute appendicitis. Appendiceal size, white blood cell count, and age correlate with length of stay. Early antibiotics and early surgical intervention may decrease length of stay.

2022 ◽
Vol 12 (2) ◽
pp. 771
Author(s):
Anusha Wei Asohan ◽
Rokiah Hashim ◽
Ku Marsilla Ku Ishak ◽
Zuratul Ain Abdul Hamid ◽
Nurshafiqah Jasme ◽
...
Keyword(s):

In this study, we aimed to prepare and characterise hydrogel formulations using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), alginate (Alg), and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). The CNC/Alg/PEGDA formulations were formed using a double network crosslinking approach. Firstly, CNC was extracted from oil palm trunk, and the size and morphology of the CNCs were characterised using TEM analysis. Secondly, different formulations were prepared using CNCs, Alg, and PEGDA. The mixtures were crosslinked with Ca2+ ions and manually extruded using a syringe before being subjected to UV irradiation at 365 nm. The shear-thinning properties of the formulations were tested prior to any crosslinking, while the determination of storage and loss modulus was conducted post extrusion after the Ca2+ ion crosslink using a rheometer. For the analysis of swelling behaviour, the constructs treated with UV were immersed in PBS solution (pH 7.4) for 48 h. The morphology of the UV crosslinked construct was analysed using SEM imaging. The extracted CNC exhibited rod-like structures with an average diameter and length of around 7 ± 2.4 and 113 ± 20.7 nm, respectively. Almost all CNC/Alg/PEGDA formulations (pre-gel formulation) displayed shear-thinning behaviour with the power-law index η < 1, and the behaviour was more prominent in the 1% [w/v] Alg formulations. The CNC/Alg/PEGDA with 2.5% and 4% [w/v] Alg displayed a storage modulus dominance over loss modulus (G′ > G″) which suggests good shape fidelity. After the hydrogel constructs were subjected to UV treatment at 365 nm, only the F8 construct [4% CNC: 4% Alg: 40% PEGDA] demonstrated tough and flexible characteristics that possibly mimic the native articular cartilage property due to a similar water content percentage (79.5%). In addition, the small swelling ratio of 4.877 might contribute to a minimal change of the 3D construct’s geometry. The hydrogel revealed a rough and wavy surface, and the pore size ranged from 3 to 20 µm. Overall, the presence of CNCs in the double network hydrogel demonstrated importance and showed positive effects towards the fabrication of a potentially ideal 3D bioprinted scaffold.

2022 ◽
Vol 933 ◽
Author(s):
Kristin N. Travis ◽
Sarah E. Smith ◽
Laure Vignal ◽
Henda Djeridi ◽
Mickaël Bourgoin ◽
...
Keyword(s):

This study presents the findings of a wind tunnel experiment investigating the behaviour of micrometric inertial particles with Stokes numbers around unity in the turbulent wake of a stationary porous disk. Various concentrations $\varPhi _{v}\in ([6-19] \times 10^{-6})$ of poly-disperse water droplets (average diameter 40–50  $\mathrm {\mu }$ m) are compared with sub-inertial tracer particles. Hot-wire anemometry, phase Doppler interferometry and particle image velocimetry were implemented in the near- and far-wake regions to study the complex dynamics of such particles. Quadrant analysis is used to explore the shear effects of the particle wake interaction. Turbulence statistics and particle size distributions reveal distinct differences in the structure of the wake when inertial particles are present in the flow. Additionally, there are different structures in the near and far wake regions and structures change with particle volume fraction.

2022 ◽
Vol 11 (2) ◽
pp. 159
Author(s):
Rocco Bochicchio ◽
Rosanna Labella ◽
Antonella Vitti ◽
Maria Nuzzaci ◽
Giuseppina Logozzo ◽
...
Keyword(s):

Early root traits and allometrics of wheat are important for competition and use of resources. They are under-utilized in research and un-explored in many ancient wheats. This is especially true for the rhizosheath emerging from root-soil interactions. We investigated root morphology, root/shoot relations and the amount of rhizosheath of four tetrapoid wheat seedlings (30 days after emergence): the italian landrace Saragolle Lucana and modern varieties Creso, Simeto and Ciclope, and tested the hypothesis that inoculation with Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (T-22) enhances rhizosheath formation and affects wheat varieties differently. Overall growth of non-inoculated plants showed different patterns in wheat varieties, with Saragolle and Ciclope at the two extremes: Saragolle invests in shoot rather than root mass, and in the occupation of space with highest (p < 0.05) shoot height to the uppermost internode (5.02 cm) and length-to-mass shoot (97.8 cm g−1) and root (more than 140 m g−1) ratios. This may be interpreted as maximizing competition for light but also as a compensation for low shoot efficiency due to the lowest (p < 0.05) recorded values of optically-measured chlorophyll content index (22.8). Ciclope invests in biomass with highest shoot (0.06 g) and root (0.04 g) mass and a thicker root system (average diameter 0.34 mm vs. 0.29 in Saragolle) as well as a highest root/shoot ratio (0.95 g g−1 vs. 0.54 in Saragolle). Rhizosheath mass ranged between 22.14 times that of shoot mass in Ciclope and 43.40 in Saragolle (different for p < 0.05). Inoculation with Trichoderma increased the amount of rhizosheath from 9.4% in Ciclope to 36.1% in Simeto and modified root architecture in this variety more than in others. Ours are the first data on roots and seedling shoot traits of Saragolle Lucana and of Trichoderma inoculation effects on rhizosheath. This opens to new unreported interpretations of effects of Trichoderma inoculation on improving plant growth.

2022 ◽
Vol 12 (1) ◽
pp. 176
Author(s):
Tong Luo ◽
Yanping Hao ◽
Chao Wang ◽
Weikun Jiang ◽
Xingxiang Ji ◽
...
Keyword(s):

A novel and effective green system consisting of deep eutectic solvent (DES) was proposed to prepare lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) without any lignin modification. The LNPs are obtained through the dialysis of the kraft lignin-DES solution. The particle size distribution, Zeta potential and morphology of the LNPs are characterized by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter of LNPs is in the range 123.6 to 140.7 nm, and the LNPs show good stability and dispersibility in water. The composite beads composed of LNPs and sodium alginate (SA) are highly efficient (97.1%) at removing methylene blue (MB) from the aqueous solution compared to 82.9% and 77.4% by the SA/bulk kraft lignin composite and pure SA, respectively. Overall, the LNPs-SA bio-nanocomposite with high adsorption capacity (258.5 mg/g) could be useful in improving water quality and other related applications.

2022 ◽
Vol 8 (1) ◽
Author(s):
Daniel J. Duke ◽
Alexander L. Clarke ◽
Andrew L. Stephens ◽
Lee Djumas ◽
Shaun D. Gregory
Keyword(s):

Abstract Background The global pandemic of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has led to global shortages of ventilators and accessories. One solution to this problem is to split ventilators between multiple patients, which poses the difficulty of treating two patients with dissimilar ventilation needs. A proposed solution to this problem is the use of 3D-printed flow splitters and restrictors. There is little data available on the reliability of such devices and how the use of different 3D printing methods might affect their performance. Methods We performed flow resistance measurements on 30 different 3D-printed restrictor designs produced using a range of fused deposition modelling and stereolithography printers and materials, from consumer grade printers using polylactic acid filament to professional printers using surgical resin. We compared their performance to novel computational fluid dynamics models driven by empirical ventilator flow rate data. This indicates the ideal performance of a part that matches the computer model. Results The 3D-printed restrictors varied considerably between printers and materials to a sufficient degree that would make them unsafe for clinical use without individual testing. This occurs because the interior surface of the restrictor is rough and has a reduced nominal average diameter when compared to the computer model. However, we have also shown that with careful calibration it is possible to tune the end-inspiratory (tidal) volume by titrating the inspiratory time on the ventilator. Conclusions Computer simulations of differential multi patient ventilation indicate that the use of 3D-printed flow splitters is viable. However, in situ testing indicates that using 3D printers to produce flow restricting orifices is not recommended, as the flow resistance can deviate significantly from expected values depending on the type of printer used. Trial registration Not applicable.