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Published By Springer-Verlag


Vivek K. Gaur ◽  
Shivangi Gupta ◽  
Poonam Sharma ◽  
Pallavi Gupta ◽  
Sunita Varjani ◽  

Zoe Coates Fuentes ◽  
Yuri Levin Schwartz ◽  
Anna R. Robuck ◽  
Douglas I. Walker

AbstractThe exposome, which is defined as the cumulative effect of environmental exposures and corresponding biological responses, aims to provide a comprehensive measure for evaluating non-genetic causes of disease. Operationalization of the exposome for environmental health and precision medicine has been limited by the lack of a universal approach for characterizing complex exposures, particularly as they vary temporally and geographically. To overcome these challenges, passive sampling devices (PSDs) provide a key measurement strategy for deep exposome phenotyping, which aims to provide comprehensive chemical assessment using untargeted high-resolution mass spectrometry for exposome-wide association studies. To highlight the advantages of silicone PSDs, we review their use in population studies and evaluate the broad range of applications and chemical classes characterized using these samplers. We assess key aspects of incorporating PSDs within observational studies, including the need to preclean samplers prior to use to remove impurities that interfere with compound detection, analytical considerations, and cost. We close with strategies on how to incorporate measures of the external exposome using PSDs, and their advantages for reducing variability in exposure measures and providing a more thorough accounting of the exposome. Continued development and application of silicone PSDs will facilitate greater understanding of how environmental exposures drive disease risk, while providing a feasible strategy for incorporating untargeted, high-resolution characterization of the external exposome in human studies.

Anna Maria Becker ◽  
Heike Marquart ◽  
Torsten Masson ◽  
Carolin Helbig ◽  
Uwe Schlink

AbstractFeedback on personal exposure to air pollution, noise or extreme temperatures through wearable sensors or sensors installed at home or in the workplace can offer information that might motivate behaviours to mitigate exposure. As personal measurement devices are becoming increasingly accessible, it is important to evaluate the effects of such sensors on human perception and behaviour. We conducted a systematic literature research and identified 33 studies, analysing the effects of personal feedback on air pollution, noise and temperatures. Feedback was given through reports including different forms of visualization, in-person or over the telephone, or directly on the sensor or through a phone app. The exposure feedback led to behaviour changes particularly for noise and temperature feedback while findings on behaviour adaptation to avoid air pollution were mixed. Most studies reported increased awareness and knowledge from receiving exposure feedback. Many participants in studies on air pollution reported low levels of self-efficacy regarding exposure mitigation. For a better understanding of the effects of personal exposure feedback, more studies are required, particularly providing feedback from wearable sensors measuring outdoor air pollution, noise and temperature.

Farooq Sher ◽  
David Raore ◽  
Jiří Jaromír Klemeš ◽  
Piyya Muhammad Rafi-ul-Shan ◽  
Martin Khzouz ◽  

AbstractThere has been a continuously growing trend in international commercial air traffic, with the exception of COVID-19 crises; however, after the recovery, the trend is expected to even sharpen. The consequences of released emissions and by-products in the environment range from human health hazards, low air quality and global warming. This study is aimed to investigate the role of aviation emissions in global warming. For this purpose, data on different variables including global air traffic and growth rate, air traffic in different continents, total global CO2 emissions of different airlines, direct and indirect emissions, air traffic in various UK airports and fuel-efficient aircraft was collected from various sources like EU member states, Statista, Eurostat, IATA, CAA and EUROCONTROL. The results indicated that in 2019, commercial airlines carried over 4.5 × 109 passengers on scheduled flights. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the global number of passengers was reduced to 1.8 × 109, representing around a 60% reduction in air traffic. Germany was the largest contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) from the EU, releasing 927 kt of emissions in 3 years. In the UK, Heathrow airport had the highest number of passengers in 2019 with over 80 million, and the study of monthly aircraft movement revealed that Heathrow Airport also had the highest number of EU and International flights, while Edinburgh had the domestic flights in 2018. These research findings could be beneficial for airlines, policymakers and governments targeting the reduction of aircraft emissions. Graphical abstract

Wan Azlina Ahmad ◽  
Nurzila Abd. Latif ◽  
Dayang Norulfairuz Abang Zaidel ◽  
Rozidaini Mohd. Ghazi ◽  
Akihiko Terada ◽  

Utjok W. R. Siagian ◽  
Khoiruddin Khoiruddin ◽  
Anita K. Wardani ◽  
Putu T. P. Aryanti ◽  
I Nyoman Widiasa ◽  

Hui Zhao ◽  
Yuxin Zhang ◽  
Qi Qi ◽  
Hongliang Zhang

Naveed Ahmed ◽  
Bipro Ranjan Dhar ◽  
Biplob Kumar Pramanik ◽  
Hugh Forehead ◽  
William E. Price ◽  

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