The human–computer interaction (HCI) design of educational technologies influences cognitive behaviour, so it is imperative to assess how different HCI strategies support intended behaviour. We developed a neuroscience-inspired game that trains children's use of “stopping-and-thinking” (S&T)—an inhibitory control-related behaviour—in the context of counterintuitive science problems. We tested the efficacy of four HCI features in supporting S&T: (1) a readiness mechanic, (2) motion cues, (3) colour cues, and (4) rewards/penalties. In a randomised eye-tracking trial with 45 7-to-8-year-olds, we found that the readiness mechanic increased S&T duration, that motion and colour cues proved equally effective at promoting S&T, that combining symbolic colour with the readiness mechanic may have a cumulative effect, and that rewards/penalties may have distracted children from S&T. Additionally, S&T duration was related to in-game performance. Our results underscore the importance of interdisciplinary approaches to educational technology research that actively investigates how HCI impacts intended learning behaviours.
Описаны результаты применения нового метода артериальной пьезопульсометрии для неинвазивной оценки функционального состояния и физиологических механизмов автономной регуляции сердечно-сосудистой системы (ССС) у пожилого человека при острой боли, связанной с неожиданной физической травмой. Такое воздействие в первый же день вызвало негативную стресс-реакцию в мышечных эффекторах (МЭ) ССС, провоцируя аномальное усиление и ускорение сократимости миокарда ЛЖ сердца. Анализ графиков волн пульсового АД крови (ПАДК) показал, что максимальная скорость прироста ПАДК - VmaxPP, отражающая сократительную способность миокарда, выросла с 625±74 перед травмой до 2 117±173 мм рт. ст./с после травмы, исказив контур нормального графика. Причиной этого роста могло быть быстрое суммарное воздействие трансмиттеров нейроэндокринной симпатико-адреналовой системы на адренорецепторы кардиомиоцитов. Результаты спектрального анализа вариабельности параметров волн ПАДК подтвердили такую возможность. Было показано, что при стрессе норадреналин из активированных симпатических эфферентов добавляется к характерному для пожилых людей уже повышенному содержанию гуморальных катехоламинов в межклеточной среде миокарда вблизи адренорецепторов кардиомиоцитов. При этом существенно возрастает активность парасимпатических эфферентов, выделяющих ацетилхолин, ингибирующий контрактильную реакцию миокарда и тем самым выполняющий сдерживающую кардиопротекторную функцию. При исследовании механизмов автономной регуляции МЭ ССС в условиях стрессорного воздействия использовали персонализированный подход.
The article describes the results of using the method of arterial piezopulsometry for non-invasive assessment of the functional state and physiological mechanisms of autonomous regulation of the cardiovascular system (CVS) in an elderly person with acute pain associated with unexpected physical trauma. On the first day, such an effect caused a negative stress reaction in the muscle effectors (ME) of the CVS, provoking an abnormal increase and acceleration of the contractility of the left ventricular myocardium. Analysis of the arterial blood pressure (PP) pulse wave graphs showed that the maximum rate of PP growth - VmaxPP, which reflects myocardial contractility, increased from 625±74 before injury to 2 117±173 mm Hg/s after injury, distorting the contour of the normal PP waveform. The reason for this growth could be the rapid cumulative effect of transmitters of the neuroendocrine sympathoadrenal system on adrenergic receptors (AR) of cardiomyocytes (CM). The results of the spectral analysis of the variability of the parameters of the PP waves confirmed this possibility. It was shown that under stress, norepinephrine from activated sympathetic efferents is added to the already increased content of humoral catecholamines in the extracellular environment of the myocardium near the AR of the CM, which is characteristic of the elderly. At the same time, the activity of parasympathetic efferents, releasing acetylcholine, which inhibits the contractile reaction of the myocardium and, thereby, performs a restraining cardioprotective function, significantly increases. A personalized approach was used for piezopulsometric study of the mechanisms of autonomous regulation of ME CVS under specific conditions of stress.
The paper aims to single out critical success factors contributing to efficient implementation of distance learning practices and to explain the role of project-based learning in ensuring effective teaching of profession-oriented foreign language in a distance format. The authors argue in favor of distance learning as a beneficial educational tool providing for the training of large groups of people regardless of the place of residence and placing a priority on students’ individual capacities. Study design included a preliminary survey of 150 respondents specializing in the natural sciences and the humanities identifying the key analysis criteria, a complex of experimental online lessons incorporating project-based teaching principles, and a summarizing questionnaire verifying respondents’ post-experiment outlooks. The methodology of empirical research was based on a systematic approach and deployed the methods of pedagogical observation, project-based teaching, sociological research, and statistical analysis using Neural Designer software for calculating questionnaire results. Analyzing the obtained results, the authors conclude that: 1) Students specializing in the humanities have a higher motivation to study related minor subjects; 2) interdisciplinary integration using the English language allows to achieve a cumulative effect for major and related minor subjects; 3) interdisciplinary integration based on the project method is an effective means of improving academic performance in major subjects; 4) interdisciplinary integration based on the project method makes it possible to acquaint students with the best practices in their chosen specialty; 5) project method allows to achieve related didactic goals—self-expression, independent continuous learning and the formation of professional competencies.
Epidemiological studies have confirmed that long-term exposure to road traffic noise can cause cardiovascular diseases (CDs), and when noise exposure reaches a certain level, the risk of related CDs significantly increases. Currently, a large number of Chinese residents are exposed to high noise exposure, which could greatly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, relevant studies have found that people with high noise sensitivity are more susceptible to noise. And it is necessary to pay more attention to the high noise-sensitive people. This study investigated the acute physiological effect of different noise-sensitive groups by indoor-level noise stimulus experiments under laboratory conditions, by observing heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, including standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF), and heart rate (HR). The results showed that (a) there was no significant difference in HRV between the high-sensitive group and the low-sensitive group at the physiological baseline and the different stimulating noise levels. (b) Then, based on the theory of cumulative effect of noise proposed by WHO Regional Office for Europe, non-significant but observable differences between groups were further discussed. By analyzing differences of the variation trends and the within-group significant changes of SDNN and HR between the two groups, the results tended to show that the high-sensitive group is more affected by road traffic noise. In addition, the values of SDNN and HR showed observable between-group differences at 55 dB (A) and 65 dB (A) which corresponding to the SPL associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease concerned by epidemiological studies. According to the cumulative effect theory (WHO), these differences in HRV caused by short-term noise stimulation may have the potential to produce physiological response and lead to between-groups differences in prevalence after long-term recurrent effect, and deserve attention and further research.
This study investigates the effect of Dexamethasone (Dex) treatment on blood and skeletal muscle metabolites level and skeletal muscle activity of enzymes related to energy metabolism after long-duration swimming. To evaluate whether Dex treatment, swimming, and combining these factors act on analyzed data, rats were randomly divided into four groups: saline treatment non-exercise and exercise and Dex treatment non-exercised and exercised. Animals in both exercised groups underwent long-lasting swimming. The concentration of lipids metabolites, glucose, and lactate were measured in skeletal muscles and blood according to standard colorimetric and fluorimetric methods. Also, activities of enzymes related to aerobic and anaerobic metabolism were measured in skeletal muscles. The results indicated that Dex treatment induced body mass loss and increased lipid metabolites in the rats’ blood but did not alter these changes in skeletal muscles. Interestingly, prolonged swimming applied after 9 days of Dex treatment significantly intensified changes induced by Dex; however, there was no difference in skeletal muscle enzymatic activities. This study shows for the first time the cumulative effect of exercise and Dex on selected elements of lipid metabolism, which seems to be essential for the patient’s health due to the common use of glucocorticoids like Dex.
Weeds are a major biotic constraint to the production of crops. Studies on the critical period of weed control (CPWC) consider the yield loss due to the presence of all weeds present in the crop cycle. The CPWC is the time interval between the critical timing of weed removal (CTWR) and the critical weed-free period (CWFP), and the weed presence before and after the extremes of CTWR and CWFP may not significantly reduce crop yield. The crop yield is taken into consideration and weed density or biomass of individual weeds (annual or perennial) is not so important while calculating the CPWC. Only weed density or biomass is considered for calculating weed control efficiency of a particular management practice for which the weed seed bank is also a criterion. However, weed biomass is the outcome after competition experienced by each weed species with the fellow crop and the weeds. Consequently, the weed pressure in the subsequent season will be the cumulative effect of the preceding season too, which is unaccounted for in CPWC. It is argued that in organic farming or low-input farming systems, where herbicides are not used, the concept of CPWC can be misleading and should be avoided. It is concluded that CTWR is more meaningful than the CPWC.
AbstractStarting in mid-November, China was hit by several cold events during the early winter of 2020/21. The lowest temperature observed at Beijing station on 7 January reached −19.6°C. In this paper, we show that the outbreak of the record-breaking extreme cold event can be attributed to a huge merging Ural blocking (UB) ridge over the Eurasian region. The sea-ice cover in the Kara and East Siberia Seas (KESS) in autumn was at its lowest value since 1979, which could have served as a precursor signal. Further analysis shows that several successive UB episodes occurred from 1 September 2020 to 10 January 2021. The persistent UB that occurred in late September/early October 2020 may have made an important contribution to the October historical minimum of sea ice in the KESS region. Our results also show that, after each UB episode in winter, significant upward propagation of wave activity occurred around 60°E, which resulted in weakening the stratospheric vortex. Meanwhile, each UB episode also caused a significant reduction in sea-ice extent in KESS and a significant weakening of the westerly jet in mid-high-latitude Eurasia. Results suggest that the Arctic vortex, which is supposed to enhance seasonally, became weaker and more unstable than the climatic mean under the seasonal cumulative effects of UB episodes, KESS warming, and long-lasting negative-phase North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO-). Those seasonal cumulative effects, combined with the impact of La Niña winter, led to the frequent occurrence of extreme cold events.
Epigenetic marks (eg, DNA methylation) may capture the effect of gene-environment interactions. DNA methylation is involved in blood pressure (BP) regulation and hypertension development; however, no studies have evaluated its relationship with 24-hour BP phenotypes (daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour average BPs).
We examined the association of whole blood DNA methylation with 24-hour BP phenotypes and clinic BPs in a discovery cohort of 281 Blacks using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing. We developed a deep and region-specific methylation sequencing method, Bisulfite ULtrapLEx Targeted Sequencing and utilized it to validate our findings in a separate validation cohort (n=117).
Analysis of 38 215 DNA methylation regions (MRs), derived from 1 549 368 CpG sites across the genome, identified up to 72 regions that were significantly associated with 24-hour BP phenotypes. No MR was significantly associated with clinic BP. Two to 3 MRs were significantly associated with various 24-hour BP phenotypes after adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. Together, these MRs explained up to 16.5% of the variance of 24-hour average BP, while age, sex, and BMI explained up to 11.0% of the variance. Analysis of one of the MRs in an independent cohort using Bisulfite ULtrapLEx Targeted Sequencing confirmed its association with 24-hour average BP phenotype.
We identified several MRs that explain a substantial portion of variances in 24-hour BP phenotypes, which might be excellent markers of cumulative effect of factors influencing 24-hour BP levels. The Bisulfite ULtrapLEx Targeted Sequencing workflow has potential to be suitable for clinical testing and population screenings on a large scale.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive tumors of the central nervous system, characterized by a wide range of inter- and intratumor heterogeneity. Accumulation of fatty acids (FA) metabolites was associated with a low survival rate in high-grade glioma patients. The diversity of brain lipids, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is greater than in all other organs and several classes of proteins, such as FA transport proteins (FATPs), and FA translocases are considered principal candidates for PUFAs transport through BBB and delivery of PUFAs to brain cells. Among these, the CD36 FA translocase promotes long-chain FA uptake as well as oxidated lipoproteins. Moreover, CD36 binds and recognizes thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an extracellular matrix protein that was shown to play a multifaceted role in cancer as part of the tumor microenvironment. Effects on tumor cells are mediated by TSP-1 through the interaction with CD36 as well as CD47, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. TSP-1/CD47 interactions have an important role in the modulation of glioma cell invasion and angiogenesis in GBM. Separately, FA, the two membrane receptors CD36, CD47, and their joint ligand TSP-1 all play a part in GBM pathogenesis. The last research has put in light their interconnection/interrelationship in order to exert a cumulative effect in the modulation of the GBM molecular network.