association studies
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Changqing Mu ◽  
Yating Zhao ◽  
Chen Han ◽  
Dandan Tian ◽  
Na Guo ◽  

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing incidence and high mortality, resulting in a considerable socio-economic burden. Till now, plenty of studies have explored the potential relationship between circulating levels of various micronutrients and ALS risk. However, the observations remain equivocal and controversial. Thus, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to investigate the causality between circulating concentrations of 9 micronutrients, including retinol, folate acid, vitamin B12, B6 and C, calcium, copper, zinc as well as magnesium, and ALS susceptibility. In our analysis, several single nucleotide polymorphisms were collected as instrumental variables from large-scale genome-wide association studies of these 9 micronutrients. Then, inverse variance weighted (IVW) approach as well as alternative MR-Egger regression, weighted median and MR-pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) analyses were performed to evaluate causal estimates. The results from IVW analysis showed that there was no causal relationship of 9 micronutrients with ALS risk. Meanwhile, the three complementary approaches obtained similar results. Thus, our findings indicated that supplementation of these 9 micronutrients may not play a clinically effective role in preventing the occurrence of ALS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yan Zhou ◽  
Yingyi Zhang ◽  
Rui Zhao ◽  
Zhounan Cheng ◽  
Minzhu Tang ◽  

ObjectiveTo evaluate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in RNA-seq identified mRNAs and silicosis susceptibility.MethodsA comprehensive RNA-seq was performed to screen for differently expressed mRNAs in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of eight subjects exposed to silica dust (four silicosis cases and four healthy controls). Following this, the SNPs located on the shortlisted mRNAs, which may affect silicosis susceptibility, were screened through silicosis-related genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (155 silicosis cases and 141 healthy controls), whereas functional expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL)-SNPs were identified using the GTEx database. Finally, the association between functional eQTL-SNPs and silicosis susceptibility (194 silicosis cases and 235 healthy controls) was validated.ResultsA total of 70 differentially expressed mRNAs (fold change > 2 or fold change < 0.5, P < 0.05) was obtained using RNA-seq. Furthermore, 476 SNPs located on the shortlisted mRNAs, which may affect silicosis susceptibility (P < 0.05) were obtained using GWAS, whereas subsequent six functional eQTL-SNPs were identified. The mutant A allele of rs9273410 in HLA-DQB1 indicated a potential increase in silicosis susceptibility in the validation stage (additive model: odds ratio (OR)= 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.99–1.74, P = 0.061), whereas the combination of GWAS and the validation results indicated that the mutant A allele of rs9273410 was associated with increased silicosis susceptibility (additive model: OR = 1.35, 95% CI =1.09–1.68, P = 0.006).ConclusionThe mutant A allele of rs9273410 was associated with increased silicosis susceptibility by modulating the expression of HLA-DQB1.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Mariana Miranda ◽  
Simon Nadel

Sepsis remains an important source of morbidity and mortality in children, despite the development of standardized care. In the last decades, there has been an increased interest in genetic and genomic approaches to early recognition and development of treatments to manipulate the host inflammatory response. This review will present a summary of the normal host response to infection and progression to sepsis, followed by highlighting studies with a focus on gene association studies, epigenetics, and genome-wide expression profiling. The susceptibility (or outcome) of sepsis in children has been associated with several polymorphisms of genes broadly involved in inflammation, immunity, and coagulation. More recently, gene expression profiling has been focused on identifying novel biomarkers, pathways and therapeutic targets, and gene expression-based subclassification. Knowledge of a patient’s individual genotype may, in the not-too-remote future, be used to guide tailored treatment for sepsis. However, at present, the impact of genomics remains far from the bedside of critically ill children.

2022 ◽  
Mark J Gibson ◽  
Deborah A Lawlor ◽  
Louise AC Millard

Objectives: To identify the breadth of potential causal effects of insomnia on health outcomes and hence its possible role in multimorbidity. Design: Mendelian randomisation (MR) Phenome-wide association study (MR-PheWAS) with two-sample Mendelian randomisation follow-up. Setting: Individual data from UK Biobank and summary data from a number of genome-wide association studies. Participants: 336,975 unrelated white-British UK Biobank participants. Exposures: Standardised genetic risk of insomnia for the MR-PheWAS and genetically predicted insomnia for the two-sample MR follow-up, with insomnia instrumented by a genetic risk score (GRS) created from 129 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Main outcomes measures: 11,409 outcomes from UK Biobank extracted and processed by an automated pipeline (PHESANT). Potential causal effects (i.e., those passing a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold) were followed up with two-sample MR in MR-Base, where possible. Results: 437 potential causal effects of insomnia were observed for a number of traits, including anxiety, stress, depression, mania, addiction, pain, body composition, immune, respiratory, endocrine, dental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and reproductive traits, as well as socioeconomic and behavioural traits. We were able to undertake two-sample MR for 71 of these 437 and found evidence of causal effects (with directionally concordant effect estimates across all analyses) for 25 of these. These included, for example, risk of anxiety disorders (OR=1.55 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.86] per category increase in insomnia), diseases of the oesophagus/stomach/duodenum (OR=1.32 [95% CI: 1.14, 1.53]) and spondylosis (OR=1.57 [95% CI: 1.22, 2.01]). Conclusion: Insomnia potentially causes a wide range of adverse health outcomes and behaviours. This has implications for developing interventions to prevent and treat a number of diseases in order to reduce multimorbidity and associated polypharmacy.

2022 ◽  
Ying Ma ◽  
Snehal Patil ◽  
Xiang Zhou ◽  
Bhramar Mukherjee ◽  
Lars G. Fritsche

Complex traits are influenced by genetic risk factors, lifestyle, and environmental variables, so called exposures. Some exposures, e.g., smoking or lipid levels, have common genetic modifiers identified in genome-wide association studies. Since measurements are often unfeasible, Exposure Polygenic Risk Scores (ExPRSs) offer an alternative to study the influence of exposures on various phenotypes. Here, we collected publicly available summary statistics for 28 exposures and applied four common PRS methods to generate ExPRSs in two large biobanks, the Michigan Genomics Initiative and the UK Biobank. We established ExPRS for 27 exposures and demonstrated their applicability in phenome-wide association studies and as predictors for common chronic conditions. Especially, the addition of multiple ExPRSs showed, for several chronic conditions, an improvement compared prediction models that only included traditional, disease-focused PRSs. To facilitate follow-up studies, we share all ExPRS constructs and generated results via an online repository called ExPRSweb.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Yanyu Liang ◽  
Milton Pividori ◽  
Ani Manichaikul ◽  
Abraham A. Palmer ◽  
Nancy J. Cox ◽  

Abstract Background Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are valuable to translate the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) into clinical practice. To date, most GWAS have been based on individuals of European-ancestry leading to poor performance in populations of non-European ancestry. Results We introduce the polygenic transcriptome risk score (PTRS), which is based on predicted transcript levels (rather than SNPs), and explore the portability of PTRS across populations using UK Biobank data. Conclusions We show that PTRS has a significantly higher portability (Wilcoxon p=0.013) in the African-descent samples where the loss of performance is most acute with better performance than PRS when used in combination.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Senlin Hu ◽  
Dong Hu ◽  
Haoran Wei ◽  
Shi-yang Li ◽  
Dong Wang ◽  

Background: Genetic variants in Scavenger receptor Class B Type 1 (SCARB1) influencing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were identified by recent genome-wide association studies. Further study of potential functional variants in SCARB1 may provide new ideas of the complicated relationship between HDL-C and CHD.Methods: 2000 bp in SCARB1 promoter region was re-sequenced in 168 participants with extremely high plasma HDL-C and 400 control subjects. Putative risk alleles were identified using bioinformatics analysis and reporter-gene assays. Two indel variants, rs144334493 and rs557348251, respectively, were genotyped in 5,002 CHD patients and 5,175 control subjects. The underlying mechanisms were investigated.Results: Through resequencing, 27 genetic variants were identified. Results of genotyping in 5,002 CHD patients and 5,175 control subjects revealed that rs144334493 and rs557348251 were significantly associated with increased risk of CHD [odds ratio (OR): 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09 to 1.52, p = 0.003; OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.66–4.24, p = 4.4 × 10−5). Subsequent mechanism experiments demonstrated that rs144334493 deletion allele attenuated forkhead box A1 (FOXA1) binding to the promoter region of SCARB1, while FOXA1 overexpression reversely increased SR-BI expression.Conclusion: Genetic variants in SCARB1 promoter region significantly associated with the plasma lipid levels by affecting SR-BI expression and contribute to the susceptibility of CHD.

2022 ◽  
Jan Engelmann ◽  
Lea Zillich ◽  
Josef Frank ◽  
Stefanie Wagner ◽  
Metin Cetin ◽  

Abstract Although the currently available antidepressants are well established in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), there is strong variability in the response of individual patients. Reliable predictors to guide treatment decisions before or in an early stage of treatment are needed. DNA-methylation has been proven a useful biomarker in different clinical conditions, but its importance for mechanisms of antidepressant response has not yet been determined. 80 MDD patients were selected out of >500 participants from the Early Medication Change (EMC) cohort with available genetic material based on their antidepressant response after four weeks and stratified into clear responders and age- and sex-matched non-responders (N=40, each). Early improvement after two weeks was analyzed as a secondary outcome. DNA-methylation was determined using the Illumina EPIC BeadChip. Epigenome-wide association studies were performed and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) identified using the comb-p algorithm. Enrichment was tested for hallmark gene-sets and in genome-wide association studies of depression and antidepressant response. No epigenome-wide significant differentially methylated positions were found for treatment response or early improvement. Twenty DMRs were associated with response; the strongest in an enhancer region in SORBS2, which has been related to cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes. Another DMR was located in CYP2C18, a gene previously linked to antidepressant response. Results pointed towards differential methylation in genes associated with cardiac function, neuroticism, and depression. Linking differential methylation to antidepressant treatment response is an emerging topic and represents a step towards personalized medicine, potentially facilitating the prediction of patients’ response before treatment.

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Michael Chong ◽  
Pedrum Mohammadi-Shemirani ◽  
Nicolas Perrot ◽  
Walter Nelson ◽  
Robert Morton ◽  

Background: Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA-CN) is an accessible blood-based measurement believed to capture underlying mitochondrial function. The specific biological processes underpinning its regulation, and whether those processes are causative for disease, is an area of active investigation.Methods: We developed a novel method for array-based mtDNA-CN estimation suitable for biobank-scale studies, called 'AutoMitoC'. We applied AutoMitoC to 395,781 UKBiobank study participants and performed genome and exome-wide association studies, identifying novel common and rare genetic determinants. Finally, we performed two-sample Mendelian Randomization to assess whether genetically low mtDNA-CN influenced select mitochondrial phenotypes.Results: Overall, genetic analyses identified 71 loci for mtDNA-CN, which implicated several genes involved in rare mtDNA depletion disorders, dNTP metabolism, and the mitochondrial central dogma. Rare variant analysis identified SAMHD1 mutation carriers as having higher mtDNA-CN (beta=0.23 SDs; 95% CI, 0.18- 0.29; P=2.6x10-19), a potential therapeutic target for patients with mtDNA depletion disorders, but at increased risk of breast cancer (OR=1.91; 95% CI, 1.52-2.40; P=2.7x10-8). Finally, Mendelian randomization analyses suggest a causal effect of low mtDNA-CN on dementia risk (OR=1.94 per 1 SD decrease in mtDNA-CN; 95% CI, 1.55-2.32; P=7.5x10-4).Conclusions: Altogether, our genetic findings indicate that mtDNA-CN is a complex biomarker reflecting specific mitochondrial processes related to mtDNA regulation, and that these processes are causally related to human diseases.Funding: No funds supported this specific investigation. Awards and positions supporting authors include: Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships Doctoral Award (MC, PM); CIHR Post-Doctoral Fellowship Award (RM); Wellcome Trust Grant number: 099313/B/12/A; Crasnow Travel Scholarship; Bongani Mayosi UCT-PHRI Scholarship 2019/2020 (TM); Wellcome Trust Health Research Board Irish Clinical Academic Training (ICAT) Programme Grant Number: 203930/B/16/Z (CJ); European Research Council COSIP Grant Number: 640580 (MO); E.J. Moran Campbell Internal Career Research Award (MP); CISCO Professorship in Integrated Health Systems and Canada Research Chair in Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology (GP).

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