Low Levels
Recently Published Documents





Bratashova Tatyana Sergeevna ◽  
Zakharkina Natalya Ivanovna ◽  
Shcherbakova Elena Nikolaevna ◽  
Safonov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

The study of indicators characterizing the processes associated with the acclimatization of birds in new biogeochemical conditions is of interest in connection with the prospects of the poultry industry in the Astrakhan Region, where the lack of important trace elements in soils and plant feeds: Se, I, Co, is observed. In the presented study, the main hematological and biochemical parameters of blood and mineral metabolism were determined in 2 groups of chickens of the Moscow black breed: imported to the Astrakhan Region from Moscow and kept in the Moscow Region. The analyses revealed strong differences (P<0.01) in indicators of two groups. The acclimatized birds were characterized by low levels of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as a higher content of white blood cells than in the second group. The chickens had impaired lipid and protein metabolism. A 71.3% increase in the level of total sugar most likely indicated a stress state of birds. Compared with the chickens in the Moscow Region, the level of calcium in their blood was 32.4% lower, phosphorus – 12.9%. To a large extent, a decrease in the levels of iodine and selenium – by 5.3 and 5.2 times, respectively, was observed. Thus, in the absence of external changes, acclimatized chickens are subject to a latent form of combined I- and Se-hypomicroelementosis. At the same time, a drop in egg productivity by 19% is the recorded fact. The necessity to adapt to the new climatic conditions of the Lower Volga region for birds, combined with a lack of important trace elements, can cause increased oxidative stress in acclimatized birds. Based on the results of the study, the use of feed additives that make up for the deficiency of necessary trace elements is recommended.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Martin Hejda ◽  
Jan Čuda ◽  
Klára Pyšková ◽  
Guin Zambatis ◽  
Llewellyn C. Foxcroft ◽  

AbstractTo identify factors that drive plant species richness in South-African savanna and explore their relative importance, we sampled plant communities across habitats differing in water availability, disturbance, and bedrock, using the Kruger National Park as a model system. We made plant inventories in 60 plots of 50 × 50 m, located in three distinct habitats: (i) at perennial rivers, (ii) at seasonal rivers with water available only during the rainy season, and (iii) on crests, at least ~ 5 km away from any water source. We predicted that large herbivores would utilise seasonal rivers’ habitats less intensely than those along perennial rivers where water is available throughout the year, including dry periods. Plots on granite harboured more herbaceous and shrub species than plots on basalt. The dry crests were poorer in herb species than both seasonal and perennial rivers. Seasonal rivers harboured the highest numbers of shrub species, in accordance with the prediction of the highest species richness at relatively low levels of disturbance and low stress from the lack of water. The crests, exposed to relatively low pressure from grazing but stressed by the lack of water, are important from the conservation perspective because they harbour typical, sometimes rare savanna species, and so are seasonal rivers whose shrub richness is stimulated and maintained by the combination of moderate disturbance imposed by herbivores and position in the middle of the water availability gradient. To capture the complexity of determinants of species richness in KNP, we complemented the analysis of the above local factors by exploring large-scale factors related to climate, vegetation productivity, the character of dominant vegetation, and landscape features. The strongest factor was temperature; areas with the highest temperatures reveal lower species richness. Our results also suggest that Colophospermum mopane, a dominant woody species in the north of KNP is not the ultimate cause of the lower plant diversity in this part of the park.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 313
Mohsen Mazidi ◽  
Richard J. Webb ◽  
Gregory Y. H. Lip ◽  
Andre P. Kengne ◽  
Maciej Banach ◽  

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) are established markers of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), but when concentrations are discordant ApoB is the superior predictor. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with ASCVD, yet the independent role of atherogenic lipoproteins is contentious. Four groups were created based upon high and low levels of ApoB and LDL-C. Continuous and categorical variables were compared across groups, as were adjusted markers of CKD. Logistic regression analysis assessed association(s) with CKD based on the groups. Subjects were categorised by LDL-C and ApoB, using cut-off values of >160 mg/dL and >130 mg/dL, respectively. Those with low LDL-C and high ApoB, compared to those with high LDL-C and high ApoB, had significantly higher body mass index (30.7 vs. 30.1 kg/m2) and waist circumference (106.1 vs. 102.7 cm) and the highest fasting blood glucose (117.5 vs. 112.7 mg/dL), insulin (16.6 vs. 13.1 μU/mL) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (5.3 vs. 3.7) profiles (all p < 0.001). This group, compared to those with high LDL-C and high ApoB, also had the highest levels of urine albumin (2.3 vs. 2.2 mg/L), log albumin-creatinine ratio (2.2 vs. 2.1 mg/g) and serum uric acid (6.1 vs. 5.6 mg/dL) and the lowest estimated glomerular filtration rate (81.3 vs. 88.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) (all p < 0.001). In expanded logistic regression models, using the low LDL-C and low ApoB group as a reference, those with low LDL-C and high ApoB had the strongest association with CKD, odds ratio (95% CI) 1.12 (1.08–1.16). Discordantly high levels of ApoB are independently associated with increased likelihood of CKD. ApoB remains associated with metabolic dysfunction, regardless of LDL-C.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 27
Javier Zurita ◽  
Hitesh V. Motwani ◽  
Leopold L. Ilag ◽  
Vassilis L. Souliotis ◽  
Soterios A. Kyrtopoulos ◽  

Electrophilic diol epoxide metabolites are involved in the carcinogenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, one of the widely studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The exposure of humans to this PAH can be assessed by measuring stable blood protein adducts, such as to histidine and lysine in serum albumin, from their reactive metabolites. In this respect, measurement of the adducts originating from the genotoxic (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide is of interest. However, these are difficult to measure at such low levels as are expected in humans generally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene from air pollution and the diet. The analytical methods detecting PAH-biomarkers still suffer from low selectivity and/or detectability to enable generation of data for calculation of in vivo doses of specific stereoisomers, for evaluation of risk factors and assessing risk from exposures to PAH. Here, we suggest an analytical methodology based on high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS) to lower the detection limits as well as to increase the selectivity with improvements in both chromatographic separation and mass determination. Method development was performed using serum albumin alkylated in vitro by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide isomers. The (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts could be chromatographically resolved by using an HPLC column with a pentafluorophenyl stationary phase. Interferences were further diminished by the high mass accuracy and resolving power of Orbitrap MS. The achieved method detection limit for the (+)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adduct to histidine was approximately 4 amol/mg serum albumin. This adduct as well as the adducts to histidine from (−)-anti- and (+/−)-syn-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide were quantified in the samples from benzo[a]pyrene-exposed mice. Corresponding adducts to lysine were also quantified. In human serum albumin, the anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts to histidine were detected in only two out of twelve samples and at a level of approximately 0.1 fmol/mg.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Ester Cerin ◽  
Anthony Barnett ◽  
Jonathan E. Shaw ◽  
Erika Martino ◽  
Luke D. Knibbs ◽  

Population ageing and urbanisation are global phenomena that call for an understanding of the impacts of features of the urban environment on older adults’ cognitive function. Because neighbourhood characteristics that can potentially have opposite effects on cognitive function are interdependent, they need to be considered in conjunction. Using data from an Australian national sample of 4141 adult urban dwellers, we examined the extent to which the associations of interrelated built and natural environment features and ambient air pollution with cognitive function are explained by cardiometabolic risk factors relevant to cognitive health. All examined environmental features were directly and/or indirectly related to cognitive function via other environmental features and/or cardiometabolic risk factors. Findings suggest that dense, interconnected urban environments with access to parks, blue spaces and low levels of air pollution may benefit cognitive health through cardiometabolic risk factors and other mechanisms not captured in this study. This study also highlights the need for a particularly fine-grained characterisation of the built environment in research on cognitive function, which would enable the differentiation of the positive effects of destination-rich neighbourhoods on cognition via participation in cognition-enhancing activities from the negative effects of air pollutants typically present in dense, destination-rich urban areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 591
Jinkyo Shin ◽  
Nicholas A. Moon ◽  
Jesse Caylor ◽  
Patrick D. Converse ◽  
Okja Park ◽  

Economic individualism—involving a belief that the individual should be in control of his/her own economic decisions and an increased emphasis on competition and achievement—is becoming more prominent in several areas of the world, but little is known about the implications of this characteristic for employee attitudes and behavior. Our study investigated the impact of economic individualism on job engagement. More specifically, the research developed and examined a model involving work motivation as a mediator and growth need strength as a moderator. Employees (N = 235, 58.3% male, 33.6% 20–29 years old, 53.2% with a bachelor’s degree) from several companies in South Korea completed survey measures of economic individualism, job engagement, work motivation, and growth need strength. Findings supported work motivation as a mediator and indicated that the indirect effect through work motivation was significant at high levels of growth need strength although not at low levels. These findings provide new insights regarding the individual-level engagement implications of economic individualism and when and why these implications hold, as prior research on economic individualism has focused on the organizational and societal levels.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Matteo Paccagnella ◽  
Andrea Abbona ◽  
Andrea Michelotti ◽  
Elena Geuna ◽  
Fiorella Ruatta ◽  

Cancer induces immune suppression to overcome its recognition and eradication by the immune system. Cytokines are messengers able to modulate immune response or suppression. There is great interest in the evaluation of their changes during treatment in order to identify their relationship with clinical outcome. We evaluated 18 cytokines in breast cancer patients treated with eribulin before starting treatment (T0) and after four courses of therapy (T1). Longitudinal modifications were considered and cytokine clusters through PCA and HCPC correlated to patients’ outcomes were identified. Forty-one metastatic breast cancer patients and fifteen healthy volunteers were included. After clustering, we identified at T0 six patient clusters with different risk of relapse and death. At T1, only four clusters were identified, and three of them accounted for thirty-eight of forty-one patients, suggesting a possible role of treatment in reducing heterogeneity. The cluster with the best survival at T1 was characterized by low levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CCL-2, CCL-4, and TGF-β. The cluster showing the worst survival encompassed high levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CCL-2, and IFN-γ. A subgroup of patients with short progression-free survival (PFS) and long overall survival (OS) was comprised of in the cluster characterized by low levels of CCL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12 at T0. Our data support the prognostic significance of longitudinal serum cytokine analysis. This approach may help identify patients for whom early treatment stop avoids needless toxicity or might justify treatment beyond early progression. Further investigations are required to validate this hypothesis.

A. Abilov ◽  
M. Dunin ◽  
I. Pridanova ◽  
S. Ushakov ◽  
B. Seidakhmetov

Purpose: To conduct a comprehensive monitoring of bulls of different breeds in the summer in a comparative perspective to the study of protein-lipid and mineral metabolism, as well as to determine hormonal status on the content of endogenous hormones: testosterone, estradiol, cortisol and serum thyroxine per day taking seed.Materials and methods. For the first time in a Chernozem region of the Russian Federation (Voronezh region) was carried out comprehensive monitoring of bulls of red-motley Holstein (n = 16), Red-and-White (n = 8) and Simmental (n = 6) rocks in the same time of year (summer) of the protein-lipid and mineral metabolism, as well as the level of endogenous hormone (testosterone, estradiol, cortisol, thyroxine) and their cholesterol precursor in comparative aspect, immediately after taking the seed. Age range bulls ranged from 2 to 11 years. General monitoring was conducted on 23 indices of blood serum 3 rocks. The studies were conducted by modern methods, using modern equipment and reagents.Results. At Red Pied Holsteins an increase of total protein 100.45 g / L versus 92 g / l in normal (above the norm of 9.2%, as compared with red and White breed at the level of 11.3%). A similar increase in concentration in the blood of Holstein bulls red-White breed recorded on globulins, 68.87 g / l to 63 g / l in normal (above the norm of 9.3%), and with respect to the red-and-White breed 17, 6%. Also notes the high content of AST bulls red-motley Holstein against the red-and-White 18%, but within the reference range. Condition protein and lipid metabolism in sires only differed in content of creatinine, which amounted to 165.04 micromol / l against 163 mmol / l in normal, 1.6% higher as compared to the red and white breed this index was higher 18.7%. According to the content of testosterone highest rate was observed in bulls red-White breed 54.73 ± 9.51 nmol / l, is 10.2% more than in bulls red checkered-Holstein and 12.45% compared with Simmental breed. Similarly, in terms of serum cortisol - 355.60 ± 39.2 nmol / l in the red-bulls White breed that more than 2-fold compared with bulls Red Pied Holstein and Simmental. The difference is statistically significant at P ≤ 0,01. According to the content of estradiol relatively low levels recorded in the bulls of red-motley breed - 0.265 nmol / L vs. 0.301 nmol / L in red bulls-motley Holstein, and 0.332 nmol / L - Simmental, is lower by 13.6% and 25 , 3%, respectively.Conclusion. It was found that substantially all of the studied parameters in bulls 3 breeds are at reference values, and this gives grounds to assume that all of these breeds are well adapted to the conditions of Black Soil.

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 ◽  
pp. 43-50
Eliane Cristina de Andrade Gonçalves ◽  
Carlos Alencar Souza Alves Junior ◽  
Vladimir Schuindt da Silva ◽  
Andreia Pelegrini ◽  
Diego Augusto Santos Silva

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Joseph Bitar ◽  
Martin Boileau

Abstract In the context of a managed float regime, we adopt the portfolio balance view to show the effects of the net foreign assets of an economy and its gross international reserves level on interest rate differentials. We argue that the interest rate differential can be explained by three components, where the components are the expected depreciation of the domestic currency, a default risk premium, and a portfolio balance premium. Our theoretical analysis suggests that the interest differential is a convex function of the level of gross international reserves. In particular, the differential and gross reserves are inversely related at low levels of reserves, but positively at higher levels. We evaluate our framework for the case of Lebanon. We find that the differential is inversely related to both net foreign assets and gross international reserves. These findings are then confirmed with data from Indonesia and Mexico.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document