The article is devoted to the study of modern theoretical and legal problems of ensuring biological security in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The published Draft of Federal law No. 850485-7“On biological security of the Russian Federation”provides an opportunity to take a closer look at the problem of legal provision of biological security in relation to the most vulnerable ecosystems, and, first of all, the Arctic. The article considers the most important features and potential risks of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation of critical importance from the point of view of biological hazards, the features (specificity) of biological safety problems from the point of view of organizational-legal features and, in particular, from the perspective of environmental law. It is proved that, given the special situation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, in addition to the base Federal law“About biological safety” required a specific law on biological and ecological safety of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, which should be generated on a slightly different model than the draft Federal law «On biological safety”, to wear the most specific, applied nature.
The paper considers the priorities of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic, from the point of view of the development of scientific research, identified by the main strategic documents of national policy and security in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Measures for implementation of priorities in the development of scientific research in the Arctic can be divided into three main sections:
1. Scientific projects and expeditions in the Arctic;
2. International activities;
3. Coordination and implementation of integrated research in the Arctic.
Note that currently the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation develops the Analytical Coordination Program “Comprehensive research of the Arctic and Antarctic”, in cooperation with the federal state bodies and Governance of the Subjects of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. The mechanism of the Program will ensure coordination between state bodies for integrated scientific researches in the Arctic in the interests of economic and scientific development of the region, and the creation of the scientific, technical and technological reserve in order to ensure of national security in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation.
Through the concept of transnational space and “case-study” method, the prospects for the involvement of Ibero-America in the virtual Trans-Arctic, which is turning into a geoeconomic and geopolitical "bond" of two neighboring spaces – Trans-Atlantic and Trans-Pacific – are considered. The strengthening of Iberoamerican states’ presence in the Trans-Arctic will be a factor in increasing their ratings in the global hierarchy, will provide them with new geopolitical advantages for global competition, will strengthen comprehensive security (economic, environmental, energy, transport and logistics, food, water). In the context of the Arctic interests of Ibero-America, special attention is paid to options for possible "win-win" cooperation in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, including taking into account the potential of BRICS and its "outreach" and "BRICS +" platforms. Highlighted fundamental legal differences between Trans-Arctic and Antarctic. The Arctic prospects of Brazil as a channel for the realization of the circumpolar interests of the Iberoamerican states are emphasized