the arctic
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2022 ◽  
Vol 270 ◽  
pp. 112861
Author(s):  
Hisatomo Waga ◽  
Hajo Eicken ◽  
Bonnie Light ◽  
Yasushi Fukamachi
Keyword(s):  
Sea Ice ◽  

Author(s):  
Robert Bauernfeind
Keyword(s):  

This article examines the depiction of polar bears in Dutch painting and graphics from the late 16th to the early 18th centuries. Reports of the first encounters between Dutch humans and polar bears established the idea of these animals as aggressive predators. This idea dominated the image of the bear in illustrated travelogues as well as in allegorical depictions of the Arctic and whaling pictures. The polar bear thus became a symbol for the dangers of the region and appears as an obstacle to the human exploitation of the Arctic. However, depictions of the bloody hunt for polar bears indicate the economically motivated triumph of Europeans in this inhospitable area.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Martin Jakobsson ◽  
Larry A. Mayer

The ocean and the marine parts of the cryosphere interact directly with, and are affected by, the seafloor and its primary properties of depth (bathymetry) and shape (morphology) in many ways. Bottom currents are largely constrained by undersea terrain with consequences for both regional and global heat transport. Deep ocean mixing is controlled by seafloor roughness, and the bathymetry directly influences where marine outlet glaciers are susceptible to the inflow relatively warm subsurface waters - an issue of great importance for ice-sheet discharge, i.e., the loss of mass from calving and undersea melting. Mass loss from glaciers and the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, is among the primary drivers of global sea-level rise, together now contributing more to sea-level rise than the thermal expansion of the ocean. Recent research suggests that the upper bounds of predicted sea-level rise by the year 2100 under the scenarios presented in IPCC’s Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCCC) likely are conservative because of the many unknowns regarding ice dynamics. In this paper we highlight the poorly mapped seafloor in the Polar regions as a critical knowledge gap that needs to be filled to move marine cryosphere science forward and produce improved understanding of the factors impacting ice-discharge and, with that, improved predictions of, among other things, global sea-level. We analyze the bathymetric data coverage in the Arctic Ocean specifically and use the results to discuss challenges that must be overcome to map the most remotely located areas in the Polar regions in general.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-59
Author(s):  
Paul J. Kushner ◽  
Russell Blackport ◽  
Kelly E. McCusker ◽  
Thomas Oudar ◽  
Lantao Sun ◽  
...  

Abstract Analyzing a multi-model ensemble of coupled climate model simulations forced with Arctic sea-ice loss using a two-parameter pattern-scaling technique to remove the cross-coupling between low- and high-latitude responses, the sensitivity to high-latitude sea-ice loss is isolated and contrasted to the sensitivity to low-latitude warming. In spite of some differences in experimental design, the Northern Hemisphere near-surface atmospheric sensitivity to sea-ice loss is found to be robust across models in the cold season; however, a larger inter-model spread is found at the surface in boreal summer, and in the free tropospheric circulation. In contrast, the sensitivity to low-latitude warming is most robust in the free troposphere and in the warm season, with more inter-model spread in the surface ocean and surface heat flux over the Northern Hemisphere. The robust signals associated with sea-ice loss include upward turbulent and longwave heat fluxes where sea-ice is lost, warming and freshening of the Arctic ocean, warming of the eastern North Pacific relative to the western North Pacific with upward turbulent heat fluxes in the Kuroshio extension, and salinification of the shallow shelf seas of the Arctic Ocean alongside freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic. In contrast, the robust signals associated with low-latitude warming include intensified ocean warming and upward latent heat fluxes near the western boundary currents, freshening of the Pacific Ocean, salinification of the North Atlantic, and downward sensible and longwave fluxes over the ocean.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 933
Author(s):  
Andrey Novoselov ◽  
Ivan Potravny ◽  
Irina Novoselova ◽  
Violetta Gassiy

The method of the social investing of the Arctic subsoil users is considered in this article. As the portfolio of social investments is formed based on the interests of indigenous peoples, the authors used expert assessment and sociological research for social investing modeling. A two-stage procedure for forming a portfolio of such projects is proposed. An approach has also been developed for assessing and selecting investment projects for the Arctic sustainable development according to different criteria of optimality. The authors substantiate the need for a new approach to sustainable development of the Arctic, based not on compensation for the negative consequences of industrial development used in many countries, but on social investment. In this article the proposed approach is tested on the case of the Arctic indigenous community in Taimyr and the optimal social investing portfolio is justified.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 95-116
Author(s):  
Arial J. Shogren ◽  
Jay P. Zarnetske ◽  
Benjamin W. Abbott ◽  
Samuel Bratsman ◽  
Brian Brown ◽  
...  

Abstract. Repeated sampling of spatially distributed river chemistry can be used to assess the location, scale, and persistence of carbon and nutrient contributions to watershed exports. Here, we provide a comprehensive set of water chemistry measurements and ecohydrological metrics describing the biogeochemical conditions of permafrost-affected Arctic watersheds. These data were collected in watershed-wide synoptic campaigns in six stream networks across northern Alaska. Three watersheds are associated with the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research site at Toolik Field Station (TFS), which were sampled seasonally each June and August from 2016 to 2018. Three watersheds were associated with the National Park Service (NPS) of Alaska and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and were sampled annually from 2015 to 2019. Extensive water chemistry characterization included carbon species, dissolved nutrients, and major ions. The objective of the sampling designs and data acquisition was to characterize terrestrial–aquatic linkages and processing of material in stream networks. The data allow estimation of novel ecohydrological metrics that describe the dominant location, scale, and overall persistence of ecosystem processes in continuous permafrost. These metrics are (1) subcatchment leverage, (2) variance collapse, and (3) spatial persistence. Raw data are available at the National Park Service Integrated Resource Management Applications portal (O'Donnell et al., 2021, https://doi.org/10.5066/P9SBK2DZ) and within the Environmental Data Initiative (Abbott, 2021, https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/258a44fb9055163dd4dd4371b9dce945).


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Magnani ◽  
Ilaria Baneschi ◽  
Mariasilvia Giamberini ◽  
Brunella Raco ◽  
Antonello Provenzale

AbstractHigh-Arctic ecosystems are strongly affected by climate change, and it is still unclear whether they will become a carbon source or sink in the next few decades. In turn, such knowledge gaps on the drivers and the processes controlling CO2 fluxes and storage make future projections of the Arctic carbon budget a challenging goal. During summer 2019, we extensively measured CO2 fluxes at the soil–vegetation–atmosphere interface, together with basic meteoclimatic variables and ecological characteristics in the Bayelva river basin near Ny Ålesund, Spitzbergen, Svalbard (NO). By means of multi-regression models, we identified the main small-scale drivers of CO2 emission (Ecosystem Respiration, ER), and uptake (Gross Primary Production, GPP) in this tundra biome, showing that (i) at point scale, the temporal variability of fluxes is controlled by the classical drivers, i.e. air temperature and solar irradiance respectively for ER and GPP, (ii) at site scale, the heterogeneity of fractional vegetation cover, soil moisture and vegetation type acted as additional source of variability for both CO2 emissions and uptake. The assessment of the relative importance of such drivers in the multi-regression model contributes to a better understanding of the terrestrial carbon dioxide exchanges and of Critical Zone processes in the Arctic tundra.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Christian Jørgensen ◽  
Jens Søndergaard ◽  
Martin Larsen ◽  
Kristian Kjeldsen ◽  
Diogo Rosa ◽  
...  

In the current Matters Arising we present results from verifying control measurements of dissolved mercury (Hg) in glacial meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), which significantly challenges the conclusions of the recent publication by Hawkings et al. (2021). By direct measurements of meltwater in the same glacial catchment area, we demonstrate that the input Hg concentration for the regional upscaling in Hawkings et al (2021) is likely vastly over-estimated with major implications for the validity of the asserted extreme yield of Hg from the GrIS. In addition, we present a plausible explanation for the high Hg concentration values in the study, namely hitherto unidentified cross-contamination of water samples by mercury chloride (HgCl2), which was present and used for other purposes during field work. Together, the result of our control study potentially invalidates the suggested implications of geologically sourced Hg under the southwestern margin of the GrIS on the Arctic ecosystem in both current and future climate conditions.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuqing Liu ◽  
Martin Losch ◽  
Nils Christian Hutter ◽  
Longjiang Mu

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