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2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (7) ◽  
pp. 3063
Author(s):  
E. A. Zhidkova ◽  
V. B. Pankova ◽  
M. F. Vilk ◽  
K. G. Gurevich ◽  
O. M. Drapkina

The review considers the issues of the association of railway industry occupations with the hypertension (HTN) risk. There is a number of reviews have been published earlier, where the high prevalence of HTN in railway workers was mentioned. Scientific literature was studied using the following keywords: “railway” and “hypertension” both in Russian and in English. A large spread in HTN prevalence among footplate staff was revealed according to different sources — from 7 to 60%. When recalculating the literature data on HTN prevalence among footplate staff in the CIS unites, it turned out to be no higher than that obtained for working-age men according to the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases and their Risk Factors in Regions of Russian Federation (ESSE-RF). A number of studies indicate that HTN is developing faster for locomotive drivers than for people not working in the railway industry. In our opinion, scientific work on the high frequency of HTN among railway workers can only be considered preliminary. Probably, the development of HTN could be influenced not only by occupational, but also by the major risk factors, such as metabolic ones, obesity, etc.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (4) ◽  
pp. 545-559
Author(s):  
Yuliy A. Nisnevich

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the power in post-Soviet Russia was seized by the leaders of the democratic movement - first wave democrats, and the more progressive Soviet nomenclature. As a result of the miscalculations made by the leaders of the democratic movement, the representatives of the Soviet nomenclature soon started displacing the first wave democrats and the reformers of the Gaidar call from the Russian governmental bodies in order to gain full control over the governance in the country. This appeared to be a manifestation of the more general and fundamental process, where the Russian nomenclature separated from the democratic movement, emerging as a new ruling stratum - the immediate heir to the Soviet nomenclature. The turning point, which accelerated the separation and the retreat of the Russian nomenclature from liberal and democratic principles of the countrys modernization, was the beginning of the Chechen tragedy in 1994. Not only did the Chechen events separate the Russian nomenclature and the democratic movement but also split the democratic movement itself. The goal of the article is to examine the transformation of the relationship between the democratic movement and the soviet and, later on, Russian nomenclature during the revolutionary changes of the early 1990s.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (2) ◽  
pp. 48-54
Author(s):  
V. A. Lazarenko ◽  
Y. V. Kanishchev ◽  
P. M. Nazarenko ◽  
D. P. Nazarenko ◽  
T. A. Samgina ◽  
...  

Objective. The radical elimination of extrahepatic biliary tract pathology in choledocholithiasis and acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) reduces the risk of infection and eliminates the source of endogenous intoxication; so, the search of safe and effective techniques for endoscopic papillosphincterotomy (EPT) is important.Purpose: to assess outcomes of laser-assisted endoscopic papillosphincterotomy.Material and methods. 288 patients with “wedged” (n = 111) and “valve” (n = 177) choledocholithiasis and acute biliary pancreatitis were divided into two groups depending on EPT technique: in the control group, a papillotome with electrocoagulation cord was used (n = 195); in the main group, laser scalpel was used (n = 93).Results. 87 patients with “wedged” choledocholithiasis were treated with EPT and an end electrode on the wedged stone. 16 patients out of them had mild bleeding which was stopped by irrigation with epinephrine solution (1 : 10 000) followed by the targeted coagulation. The average surgical time was 38 ± 16 min. In 24 patients with rigid and edematous medial wall of the duodenum due to acute biliary pancreatitis, the proposed device plus laser technique for papillosphincterotomy were used (patent of the Russian Federation No. 2614891). There was no bleeding, the average surgical time was 24 ± 12 min. In “valve” choledocholithiasis, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCE) was performed; calculi from the common bile duct were removed. In 108 patients during LCE, EPT was made via an antegrade catheter. In 69 patients with anatomical and physiological obstacles caused by the major duodenal papilla, we performed LCE and EPT with laser light via an antegrade guide light made of fluoroplastics (patent of the Russian Federation No. 41594). Concrements from the common bile duct were removed with the Dormia basket.Conclusions. Laser light causes less damage, reliably provides hemostasis along the incision line on the anterior wall of the major duodenal papilla; in addition, a wedged calculus in “wedged” choledocholithiasis and a fluoroplastic light guide in “valve” choledocholithiasis reliably protect the posterior wall of the major duodenal papilla from laser light damage. Laser techniques used in EPT make the treatment of choledocholithiasis in patients with ABP having anatomical and physiological problems due to the major duodenal papilla safe and effective.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 39-46
Author(s):  
P. D. Kurochkina ◽  
V. L. Tolstykh

The paper analyzes bilateral investment treaties, one of the parties to which is Russia. The article compares the provisions contained in the 1992 and 2001 model agreements of Russia, as well as the provisions of the 2016 Regulations. The concepts of “foreign investor” and “investment” are considered, discrepancies in the concepts and wording used in treaties with different states are revealed. In a comparative aspect, the authors explore the operation of treaties over time, the use of the standard of fair and equal treatment, and the application of provisions on expropriation. The features of the formulation of the national treatment standard and the most favored nation treatment standard, as well as the umbrella clause are revealed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 94-100
Author(s):  
N. A. Karpenko

The article is devoted to problematic issues that arise in the practical activities of law enforcement agencies in terms of determining the cost of calculating a large amount of alcohol turnover, which significantly affects the qualification of a criminal act under Art. 171.3 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. The emphasis is placed on the absence in law enforcement forensic practice of a single mechanism for determining the cost of a large size and the need to develop a single calculation algorithm for determining a large size taking into account criminal and criminal procedure legislation indicating the intent of a person to sell alcohol products in order to generate income. It was proposed to add to the current criminal legislation, which defines a common understanding of large-scale calculation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 23-31
Author(s):  
I. A. Nesterenko ◽  
D. Yu. Mikheev

The article discusses the concept and content of the right of legislative initiative of local self-government bodies in the legislative (representative) body of State power of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation, as well as the peculiarities of the exercise of this right by representative bodies of municipalities in Novosibirsk oblast. It has been concluded that the municipal representative body has both the general right of legislative initiative, which gives it the legal capacity to exercise this right in any manner prescribed by law, and the exclusive right, allowing municipalities to participate actively in improving the administrative and territorial organization of Novosibirsk Oblast. However, as the most numerous subject of the right in question, they do not make sufficient use of this instrument of influence on the socio-economic processes taking place in the region.


2021 ◽  
Vol 213 (10) ◽  
pp. 31-39
Author(s):  
L. Ignat'eva ◽  
A. Sermyagin

Abstract. The purpose of the research was to assess the duration of the length of productive life of Simmental cows. Methods. The research was carried out on Simmental cows bred in 14 regions of the Russian Federation, the total livestock was 8 832 heads. The calculation of the heritability coefficients and correlation (genetic and paratypic) was carried out by using the programs RENUMF90 and REMLF90. Results. A fairly strong relationship was established between the duration of a productive life (months) and the age of culling (lactations) r = +0.795, the length of productive life (months) and lifetime productivity within the range of +0.669…+0.714. However, the relationship between the age of culling (lactations) and lifetime productivity is moderate, from +0.261 to +0.316. A moderate negative relationship was obtained between the age of culling (lactations) and milk yield per first lactation from –0.472 to –0.486. The average relationship was found between milk yield per first lactation and lifetime productivity from +0.567 to +0.588. Cows of the Altai Territory (3.08 lactations or 61.6 months), the Republic of Mordovia (3.38 lactations or 62.4 months) and the Lipetsk region (3.40 lactations or 65.7 months) were distinguished by low age of culling. While the greatest length of productive life was noted in animals and Bryansk (5.48 lactations or 86.9 months) and Irkutsk regions (4.57 lactations or 77.1 months). Bryansk (23 630 kg of milk), Tyumen (18 156 kg) and Irkutsk (17 751 kg) regions occupied the leading positions in lifetime productivity of cows in the sample, while the outsiders were the regions of traditional cattle breeding - Altai Territory (12658 kg of milk), the Republic of Bashkiria (12 482 kg). Scientific novelty. For the population Simmental cattle of the Russian Federation, for the first time, an assessment of selection and genetic parameters of lifelong productivity and length of productive life of Simmental cows was carried out, depending on the breeding region.


2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (2) ◽  
pp. 21-27
Author(s):  
Marina V. Goryainova ◽  
Lyudmila A. Karasaeva ◽  
Aminat A. Nurova ◽  
Olga N. Petrova ◽  
Elena M. Ugleva ◽  
...  

BACKGROUND: In the system of medical and social expertise and rehabilitation of disabled people, the solution of issues of employment, socialization, improvement of the level and quality of their life becomes obviously relevant. AIMS: To study and analyze the needs of disabled people in vocational rehabilitation, including employment and the creation of special jobs, in a comparative aspect - in St. Petersburg and the Russian Federation. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The materials of the study were data from Rosstat of Russia, official state statistical reporting: Forms 7-sobes "Information on medical and social expertise of persons aged 18 and older" for 20152019. RESULTS: The article analyzes the indicators of primary disability and the needs of disabled people in vocational rehabilitation activities based on the study of the individual rehabilitation or habilitation program (IPRA) for disabled people in Saint Petersburg and the Russian Federation in dynamics over five years (20152019). An analysis of the needs for vocational rehabilitation measures, taking into account its structure in IPRA (vocational guidance and employment) and the disability group, was carried out. Since the greatest difficulties arise in the selection and organization of jobs for people with disabilities of groups I and II, the needs of people with disabilities in creating a special workplace have been studied. The necessity of solving organizational, methodological, and financial issues when creating special jobs for the disabled is emphasized. CONCLUSION: The implementation of the state program "Accessible environment" and its subprograms aimed at creating models of employment of disabled people in the regions of the Russian Federation requires taking into account the territorial characteristics of the prevalence of primary disability and the specifics of the regional labor market in the employment of disabled people.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (4) ◽  
pp. 935-945
Author(s):  
Irina A. Trofimets

The article offers an analysis of the European legislation in the field of creation and functioning of information systems for population registration. The author argues that population accounting is conditioned by the need to solve multiple domestic economic, social and demographic issues, as well as global problems of mankind. The information of the UN Statistical and UN Population Commissions on population and housing stock based on the states information systems formed the main selection criterion. The conducted research allowed us to conclude that there is no uniform approach in the legal regulation of population registration in EU national territories. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Hungary, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Finland have established and operate unified registers containing information about the population. Although the information systems differ, the common feature is that the public nature of the register information is emphasized; it is integrated and unified throughout the territory, the terms central and national are widely used. The author concludes that the study of world experience contributes to the improvement of national legislation and law enforcement in the relevant field of public relations, which is especially relevant in connection with the adoption of Federal Law No. 168-FZ of 08.06.2020 On the Unified Federal Information Register containing information about the population of the Russian Federation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (4) ◽  
pp. 814-830
Author(s):  
Evgenia E. Frolova ◽  
Ekaterina A. Tsepova

The subject of this article is financial relations of the state and its tax residents with foreign assets (stock), as well as control over such companies through various legal mechanisms. The authors examined the main global trends in the development of legislation on controlled foreign corporations, as well as characteristics of tax systems that may contribute to such norms introduction. It was found that implementation of international multilateral agreements such as CRS MCAA and CBC MCAA in the field of tax control enhances development of anti-offshore regulation, including legislation on controlled foreign corporations. Particular attention is paid to the comparative legal analysis of the controlled foreign companies (CFC) rules in 15 jurisdictions, including the Russian Federation and identification of similar and specific rules. As a result of the research, the authors came to the conclusion that Russia is following the world trends, although at this stage it is not the country that forms them. In the future, to successfully apply the CFC legislation in the Russian Federation, it will be necessary to improve the existing norms , increase the efficiency of tax administration and improve the legal status of taxpayers.


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