The temporality of technical debt introduction on new code and confounding factors

George Digkas ◽  
Apostolos Ampatzoglou ◽  
Alexander Chatzigeorgiou ◽  
Paris Avgeriou
1989 ◽  
Vol 28 (01) ◽  
pp. 14-19 ◽  
J. F. Dartigues ◽  
Ph. Peytour ◽  
E. Puymirat ◽  
P. Henry ◽  
M. Gagnon ◽  

Abstract:When studying the possible effects of several factors in a given disease, two major problems arise: (1) confounding, and (2) multiplicity of tests. Frequently, in order to cope with the problem of confounding factors, models with multiple explanatory variables are used. However, the correlation structure of the variables may be such that the corresponding tests have low power: in its extreme form this situation is coined by the term “multicollinearity”. As the problem of multiplicity is still relevant in these models, the interpretation of results is, in most cases, very hazardous. We propose a strategy - based on a tree structure of the variables - which provides a guide to the interpretation and controls the risk of erroneously rejecting null hypotheses. The strategy was applied to a study of cervical pain syndrome involving 990 subjects and 17 variables. Age, sex, head trauma, posture at work and psychological status were all found to be important risk factors.

2020 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 58-69 ◽  
Patricia Fajardo-Cavazos ◽  
Wayne L. Nicholson

AbstractThe NASA GeneLab Data System (GLDS) was recently developed to facilitate cross-experiment comparisons in order to understand the response of microorganisms to the human spaceflight environment. However, prior spaceflight experiments have been conducted using a wide variety of different hardware, media, culture conditions, and procedures. Such confounding factors could potentially mask true differences in gene expression between spaceflight and ground control samples. In an attempt to mitigate such confounding factors, we describe here the development of a standardized set of hardware, media, and protocols for liquid cultivation of microbes in Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) spaceflight hardware, using the model bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 168 and Staphylococcus aureus strain UAMS-1 as examples.

2015 ◽  
Vol 40 (2) ◽  
pp. 32-34 ◽  
Carolyn Seaman ◽  
Robert L. Nord ◽  
Philippe Kruchten ◽  
Ipek Ozkaya

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Joseph M. Boden ◽  
James A. Foulds ◽  
Giles Newton-Howes ◽  
Rebecca McKetin

Abstract Background This study examined the association between methamphetamine use and psychotic symptoms in a New Zealand general population birth cohort (n = 1265 at birth). Methods At age 18, 21, 25, 30, and 35, participants reported on their methamphetamine use and psychotic symptoms in the period since the previous interview. Generalized estimating equations modelled the association between methamphetamine use and psychotic symptoms (percentage reporting any symptom, and number of symptoms per participant). Confounding factors included childhood individual characteristics, family socioeconomic circumstances and family functioning. Long term effects of methamphetamine use on psychotic symptoms were assessed by comparing the incidence of psychotic symptoms at age 30–35 for those with and without a history of methamphetamine use prior to age 30. Results After adjusting for confounding factors and time-varying covariate factors including concurrent cannabis use, methamphetamine use was associated with a modest increase in psychosis risk over five waves of data (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.72 for the percentage measure; and IRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02–1.50 for the symptom count measure). The increased risk of psychotic symptoms was concentrated among participants who had used at least weekly at any point (adjusted OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.21–6.69). Use of methamphetamine less than weekly was not associated with increased psychosis risk. We found no evidence for a persistent vulnerability to psychosis in the absence of continuing methamphetamine use. Conclusion Methamphetamine use is associated with increased risk of psychotic symptoms in the general population. Increased risk is chiefly confined to people who ever used regularly (at least weekly), and recently.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (3) ◽  
Rungroj Maipradit ◽  
Christoph Treude ◽  
Hideaki Hata ◽  
Kenichi Matsumoto

A Correction to this paper has been published: 10.1007/s10664-021-09939-7

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 383
Agnieszka Micek ◽  
Justyna Godos ◽  
Achille Cernigliaro ◽  
Raffaele Ivan Cincione ◽  
Silvio Buscemi ◽  

Polyphenol-rich beverage consumption is not univocally accepted as a risk modulator for cardio-metabolic risk factors, despite mechanistic and epidemiological evidence suggesting otherwise. The aim of this study was to assess whether an association between polyphenol-rich beverage consumption and metabolic status could be observed in a Mediterranean cohort with relatively low intake of tea, coffee, red and white wine, beer, and fresh citrus juice. Demographic and dietary characteristics of 2044 adults living in southern Italy were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between polyphenol-rich and alcoholic beverage consumption and metabolic status adjusted for potential confounding factors. Specific polyphenol-rich beverages were associated, to a various extent, with metabolic outcomes. Individuals with a higher total polyphenol-rich beverages had higher polyphenols intake and were less likely to have hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.44–0.73; OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.26–0.66; and OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29–0.57, respectively). However, when adjusted for potential confounding factors, only the association with hypertension remained significant (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50–0.94). Current scientific evidence suggests that such beverages may play a role on cardio-metabolic risk factors, especially when consumed within the context of a dietary pattern characterized by an intake of a plurality of them. However, these associations might be mediated by an overall healthier lifestyle.

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