general population
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Ullah ◽  
M. A. Kakakhel ◽  
Y. Bai ◽  
L. Xi ◽  
I. Khan ◽  

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 118 ◽  
pp. 122-129
Xiaoting Qiao ◽  
Gang Li ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Jing Du ◽  
Yunjia Yang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 1-2
Bao Vincent K. Ho ◽  
Jessica Ferguson ◽  
Brittani Reme ◽  
Jadesola Akinwuntan ◽  
Edward W. Seger ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 90 ◽  
pp. 101886
Megan E. Golson ◽  
Kandice J. Benallie ◽  
Chandler M. Benney ◽  
Sarah E. Schwartz ◽  
Maryellen Brunson McClain ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 185 ◽  
pp. 111265
Ana Miljković ◽  
Ajka Pribisalić ◽  
Andrea Gelemanović ◽  
Davor Lasić ◽  
Caroline Hayward ◽  

Rajat Subhra Bhowmick ◽  
Isha Ganguli ◽  
Jayanta Paul ◽  
Jaya Sil

In today’s era of digitization, social media platforms play a significant role in networking and influencing the perception of the general population. Social network sites have recently been used to carry out harmful attacks against individuals, including political and theological figures, intellectuals, sports and movie stars, and other prominent dignitaries, which may or may not be intentional. However, the exchange of such information across the general population inevitably contributes to social-economic, socio-political turmoil, and even physical violence in society. By classifying the derogatory content of a social media post, this research work helps to eradicate and discourage the upsetting propagation of such hate campaigns. Social networking posts today often include the picture of Memes along with textual remarks and comments, which throw new challenges and opportunities to the research community while identifying the attacks. This article proposes a multimodal deep learning framework by utilizing ensembles of computer vision and natural language processing techniques to train an encapsulated transformer network for handling the classification problem. The proposed framework utilizes the fine-tuned state-of-the-art deep learning-based models (e.g., BERT, Electra) for multilingual text analysis along with face recognition and the optical character recognition model for Meme picture comprehension. For the study, a new Facebook meme-post dataset is created with recorded baseline results. The subject of the created dataset and context of the work is more geared toward multilingual Indian society. The findings demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in the identification of social media meme posts featuring derogatory content about a famous/recognized individual.

Shiori Miura ◽  
Akira Sasaki ◽  
Shuya Kasai ◽  
Takayuki Sugawara ◽  
Yasunori Maeda ◽  

AbstractAge-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a complex multifactorial disorder. Studies in animals, including mitochondria-mutator mice, and in human suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial disturbance play an important role in the pathoetiology of ARHL. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are populations with genetically similar traits, and they have been reported to affect the mitochondrial function of oxidative phosphorylation. To gain further insights into the relationships between mitochondrial haplotypes and the susceptibility to cochlear aging, in this study, we aimed to elucidate how the differences in mtDNA haplogroups may affect ARHL development in Japanese general population. We focused on early onset ARHL, as the same mtDNA haplogroup can show either a negative or positive effect on systemic co-morbidities of ARHL that appear later in life. A total of 1167 participants of the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were surveyed in 2014, and 12 major haplotype groups (D4a, D4b, D5, G1, G2, M7a, M7b, A, B4, B5, N9, and F) were selected for the analysis. A total of 698 subjects aged 30 to 65 years were included in the statistical analysis, and the hearing loss group consisted of 112 males (40.3%) and 111 females (26.4%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the male subjects belonging to haplogroup A had a significantly increased risk of hearing loss, whereas the female subjects belonging to haplogroup N9 had a significantly decreased risk of hearing loss. These results suggested that the mtDNA haplogroup may be an indicator for future risk of morbidity associated with ARHL.

Krunoslav Nikodem ◽  
Marko Ćurković ◽  
Ana Borovečki

Trust in healthcare systems and physicians is considered important for the delivery of good healthcare. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random three-stage sample of the general population of Croatia (N = 1230), stratified by regions. Of respondents, 58.7% displayed a high or very high level of trust in the healthcare system, 65.6% in physicians, and 78.3% in their family physician. Respondents’ views regarding patients’ roles in the discussion of treatment options, confidence in physicians’ expertise, and underlying motives of physicians were mixed. Respondents with a lower level of education, those with low monthly incomes, and those from smaller settlements had lower levels of trust in physicians and the healthcare system. Trust in other institutions, religiosity and religious beliefs, tolerance of personal choice, and experience of caring for the seriously ill and dying were predictors of trust in healthcare and physicians. Our findings suggest that levels of healthcare-related trust in Croatia are increasing in comparison with previous research, but need improvement. Levels of trust are lowest in populations that are most vulnerable and most in need of care and protection.

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