long term effects
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Forests ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Björn Berg ◽  
Mikael Lönn

We have reviewed information on early-, late- and limit-value decomposition stages for litter of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus silvestris). This synthesis covers c 16 studies/papers made along a climatic gradient; range in mean annual temperature (MAT) from −1 to +7 °C and mean annual precipitation (MAP) from 425 to 1070 mm. Scots pine has an early stage dominated by carbohydrate decomposition and a late stage dominated by decomposition of lignin; Norway spruce has just one stage dominated by lignin decomposition. We used data for annual mass loss to identify rate-regulating factors in both stages; climate data, namely, MAT and MAP, as well as substrate properties, namely, nitrogen (N), acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR), manganese (Mn). Early-stage decomposition for Scots pine litter was dominated positively by MAT; the late stage was dominated negatively by MAT, N, and AUR, changing with decomposition stage; there was no effect of Mn. Norway spruce litter had no early stage; decomposition in the lignin-dominated stage was mainly negative to MAP, a negative relationship to AUR and non-significant relationships to N and MAT. Mn had a positive relationship. Limit values for decomposition, namely, the accumulated mass loss at which decomposition is calculated to be zero, were related positively to Mn and AUR for Scots pine litter and negatively to AUR for Norway spruce litter. With different sets of rate-regulating factors as well as different compounds/elements related to the limit values, the decomposition patterns or pathways are different.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Eva Matt ◽  
Lisa Kaindl ◽  
Saskia Tenk ◽  
Anicca Egger ◽  
Teodora Kolarova ◽  

Abstract Background With the high spatial resolution and the potential to reach deep brain structures, ultrasound-based brain stimulation techniques offer new opportunities to non-invasively treat neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about long-term effects of ultrasound-based brain stimulation. Applying a longitudinal design, we comprehensively investigated neuromodulation induced by ultrasound brain stimulation to provide first sham-controlled evidence of long-term effects on the human brain and behavior. Methods Twelve healthy participants received three sham and three verum sessions with transcranial pulse stimulation (TPS) focused on the cortical somatosensory representation of the right hand. One week before and after the sham and verum TPS applications, comprehensive structural and functional resting state MRI investigations and behavioral tests targeting tactile spatial discrimination and sensorimotor dexterity were performed. Results Compared to sham, global efficiency significantly increased within the cortical sensorimotor network after verum TPS, indicating an upregulation of the stimulated functional brain network. Axial diffusivity in left sensorimotor areas decreased after verum TPS, demonstrating an improved axonal status in the stimulated area. Conclusions TPS increased the functional and structural coupling within the stimulated left primary somatosensory cortex and adjacent sensorimotor areas up to one week after the last stimulation. These findings suggest that TPS induces neuroplastic changes that go beyond the spatial and temporal stimulation settings encouraging further clinical applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 934
Rocío Fuente ◽  
María García-Bengoa ◽  
Ángela Fernández-Iglesias ◽  
Helena Gil-Peña ◽  
Fernando Santos ◽  

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), the most common form of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets, is caused by inactivating mutations of the phosphate-regulating endopeptidase gene (PHEX). XLH is mainly characterized by short stature, bone deformities and rickets, while in hypophosphatemia, normal or low vitamin D levels and low renal phosphate reabsorption are the principal biochemical aspects. The cause of growth impairment in patients with XLH is not completely understood yet, thus making the study of the growth plate (GP) alterations necessary. New treatment strategies targeting FGF23 have shown promising results in normalizing the growth velocity and improving the skeletal effects of XLH patients. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate how this treatment affects the GP as well as its long-term effects and the impact on adult height.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Ashleigh N. Shields ◽  
Elise Taylor ◽  
Jessica R. Welch

Abstract Background Current research has found dramatic changes in the lives of those with eating disorders (EDs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. We build on existing research to investigate the long-term effects and adaptations that people with EDs have faced due to COVID-19 related changes. Method We collected 234 posts from three separate time periods from the subreddit r/EatingDisorders and analyzed them using thematic analysis. The posts were examined for initial patterns, and then those concepts were grouped into themes to reveal the authentic experiences of people living with EDs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results Initially, we found “lack of control” and “familial influences (loved ones seeking support)” emerge as themes within our broader data set throughout all three timeframes. There were additional themes that were present in only one or two of the collection periods. These themes consisted of “symptom stress,” “technical stresses and concerns,” and “silver linings.” Conclusions Our analysis shows that people with EDs have fought significantly during the pandemic. Initially, the (lack of) control and routine in their lives has caused symptoms to become more challenging, while being forced to move back home also caused significant stress. However, concerns transformed as the pandemic progressed, resulting in new pressures causing people to exhibit novel ED symptoms or relapse altogether. Also notable is the relatively few COVID-specific posts as the pandemic progressed, suggesting that people have accepted COVID as their “new normal” and begun to build resilience to the challenges associated. These are vital factors for clinicians to consider as they begin taking existing and new patients, particularly as face-to-face treatment options become a possibility again. Plain English Summary Existing research shows that the COVID-19 pandemic has transformed the lives of people who live with eating disorders in various ways. First, the pandemic has placed barriers on the path to recovery by limiting coping mechanism (and sometimes removing them altogether) and changing their relationships with food and the people in their lives. Second, the pandemic has forced treatment options to change since ED patients can no longer seek treatment face-to-face. Finally, there have been unexpected benefits to the pandemic, such as allowing individuals time to slow down and focus on their mental health. Previous studies examined individuals in clinical contexts rather than in their natural environments. We explored an online forum for people with eating disorders for the various themes that were discussed at three points over the period of March 2020-December 2020 and found that many people with EDs report worsening symptoms or relapse. However, we also noted that, compared to the beginning of the pandemic, people seemed to be less frequently asking for support during the third data collection period, implying an adaptation to the “new normal” of life in a pandemic. We conclude with a discussion of the findings.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 364
Nathalie Irvine ◽  
Gillian England-Mason ◽  
Catherine J. Field ◽  
Deborah Dewey ◽  
Fariba Aghajafari

Women’s nutritional status during pregnancy can have long-term effects on children’s brains and cognitive development. Folate and choline are methyl-donor nutrients and are important for closure of the neural tube during fetal development. They have also been associated with brain and cognitive development in children. Animal studies have observed that prenatal folate and choline supplementation is associated with better cognitive outcomes in offspring and that these nutrients may have interactive effects on brain development. Although some human studies have reported associations between maternal folate and choline levels and child cognitive outcomes, results are not consistent, and no human studies have investigated the potential interactive effects of folate and choline. This lack of consistency could be due to differences in the methods used to assess folate and choline levels, the gestational trimester at which they were measured, and lack of consideration of potential confounding variables. This narrative review discusses and critically reviews current research examining the associations between maternal levels of folate and choline during pregnancy and brain and cognitive development in children. Directions for future research that will increase our understanding of the effects of these nutrients on children’s neurodevelopment are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 76-86
Antarpreet Kaur ◽  
Chloe Michalopoulos ◽  
Suzanne Carpe ◽  
Soontharee Congrete ◽  
Hira Shahzad ◽  

Background: Observational studies of the long-term effects of COVID-19 infection generally focus on individual symptoms rather than health status. Objective: Longitudinal assessment of general health status following COVID-19 infection. Design: Observational study, with data collected from two telephone surveys at 32 ± 10 and 89 ± 25 days after discharge from the hospital or emergency department (ED) for a COVID-19 infection. Medicaid or no insurance was our marker of low socioeconomic status (SES). Acute disease severity was determined by summing 10 severity markers (yes-no) from the health encounter. Baseline comorbidity was a modified Charlson Index. Participants: 40 patients. Mean age was 54 ± 15 years, 50% were female, and 40% had low socioeconomic status. Main Measures: (1) the 20-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-20); (2) Dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council); (3) Psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire for Anxiety and Depression); (4) Cognitive function (Cognitive Change Questionnaire); (5) Fatigue (Short Fatigue Questionnaire); (6) A 10-item review of systems (ROS) questionnaire. Key Results: Percentages with abnormal symptoms at the first and second surveys were (respectively): Dyspnea (40, 33), Fatigue (53, 50), Anxiety (33, 18), Depression (20, 10), PHQ-4 Composite (25, 13), and Cognitive (18, 10). Mean scores on the SF-20 subscales, Physical Functioning, Role Functioning, Social Functioning, Health Perception, Mental Health, and Pain were numerically lower than means from a published study of elderly outpatients. With the exception of Pain, all SF-20 subscale scores improved significantly by the second survey. In multivariable analyses, dyspnea was predictive of impairment in all SF-20 subscales at the second survey. Conclusions: COVID-19 infection causes persistent abnormality across multiple patient-reported outcome areas, including health status. The persistence of impairment in each health status component is influenced by baseline dyspnea.

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