individual characteristics
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Chapkit Charnsamorn ◽  
Suphongsa Khetkeeree

The existed interpolation method, based on the second-order tetration polynomial, has the asymmetric property. The interpolation results, for each considering region, give individual characteristics. Although the interpolation performance has been better than the conventional methods, the symmetric property for signal interpolation is also necessary. In this paper, we propose the symmetric interpolation formulas derived from the second-order tetration polynomial. The combination of the forward and backward operations was employed to construct two types of the symmetric interpolation. Several resolutions of the fundamental signals were used to evaluate the signal reconstruction performance. The results show that the proposed interpolations can be used to reconstruct the fundamental signal and its peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) is superior to the conventional interpolation methods, except the cubic spline interpolation for the sine wave signal. However, the visual results show that it has a small difference. Moreover, our proposed interpolations converge to the steady-state faster than the cubic spline interpolation. In addition, the option number increasing will reinforce their sensitivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-36
Dazhong Shen ◽  
Chuan Qin ◽  
Hengshu Zhu ◽  
Tong Xu ◽  
Enhong Chen ◽  

The job interview is considered as one of the most essential tasks in talent recruitment, which forms a bridge between candidates and employers in fitting the right person for the right job. While substantial efforts have been made on improving the job interview process, it is inevitable to have biased or inconsistent interview assessment due to the subjective nature of the traditional interview process. To this end, in this article, we propose three novel approaches to intelligent job interview by learning the large-scale real-world interview data. Specifically, we first develop a preliminary model, named Joint Learning Model on Interview Assessment (JLMIA), to mine the relationship among job description, candidate resume, and interview assessment. Then, we further design an enhanced model, named Neural-JLMIA, to improve the representative capability by applying neural variance inference. Last, we propose to refine JLMIA with Refined-JLMIA (R-JLMIA) by modeling individual characteristics for each collection, i.e., disentangling the core competences from resume and capturing the evolution of the semantic topics over different interview rounds. As a result, our approaches can effectively learn the representative perspectives of different job interview processes from the successful job interview records in history. In addition, we exploit our approaches for two real-world applications, i.e., person-job fit and skill recommendation for interview assessment. Extensive experiments conducted on real-world data clearly validate the effectiveness of our models, which can lead to substantially less bias in job interviews and provide an interpretable understanding of job interview assessment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Canada Parrish ◽  
Anirban Basu ◽  
Paul Fishman ◽  
Jean Baptiste Koama ◽  
Ermane Robin ◽  

Abstract Background Differentiated care strategies are rapidly becoming the norm for HIV care delivery globally. Building upon an interest in tailoring antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery for client-centered needs, the Ministry of Health and Population in Haiti formally endorsed multiple-month dispenses (MMD) in the 2016 national ART guidelines This study explores heterogeneity in retention in care with MMD for specific Haitian populations living with HIV and evaluates if a targeted algorithm for optimal ART prescription intervals is warranted in Haiti. Methods This study included ART-naïve individuals who started ART on or after January 1st, 2017 in Haiti. To identify subgroups in which to explore heterogeneity of retention, we implemented a double-lasso regression method to determine which individual characteristics would define the subgroups. Characteristics evaluated for potential subgroup definition included: sex, age category, WHO clinical stage, and body mass index category. We employed instrumental variable models to estimate the causal effect of increasing ART dispensing length on ART retention, by client subgroup. The outcome of interest was retention in care after one year in treatment. We then estimated the marginal effect of a 30-day increase to ART dispensing length to retention in care for each of these subgroups. Results There was evidence for heterogeneity in the effect of extending ART dispensing intervals on retention by WHO clinical stage. We observed significant improvements to retention in care at one year with a 30-day increase in ART dispense length for all subgroups defined by WHO clinical stages 1-4. The effects ranged from a 14.7% increase (95% CI: 12.4-17.0) to the likelihood of retention for people with HIV in WHO stage 1 to a 21.6% increase (95% CI: 18.7-24.5) to the likelihood of retention for those in WHO stage 3. Conclusions All the subgroups defined by WHO clinical stage experienced a benefit of extending ART intervals to retention in care at one year. Though the effect did differ slightly by WHO stage, the effects went in the same direction and were of similar magnitude. Therefore, a standardized recommendation for MMD among those living with HIV and new on ART is appropriate for Haiti treatment guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Annie Doubleday ◽  
Catherine J. Knott ◽  
Marnie F. Hazlehurst ◽  
Alain G. Bertoni ◽  
Joel D. Kaufman ◽  

Abstract Background Neighborhood greenspaces provide opportunities for increased physical activity and social interaction, and thus may reduce the risk of Type 2 diabetes. However, there is little robust research on greenspace and diabetes. In this study, we examine the longitudinal association between neighborhood greenspace and incident diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods A prospective cohort study (N = 6814; 2000-2018) was conducted to examine the association between greenspace, measured as annual and high vegetation season median greenness determined by satellite (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) within 1000 m of participant homes, and incident diabetes assessed at clinician visits, defined as a fasting glucose level of at least 126 mg/dL, use of insulin or use of hypoglycemic medication, controlling for covariates in stages. Five thousand five hundred seventy-four participants free of prevalent diabetes at baseline were included in our analysis. Results Over the study period, 886 (15.9%) participants developed diabetes. Adjusting for individual characteristics, individual and neighborhood-scale SES, additional neighborhood factors, and diabetes risk factors, we found a 21% decrease in the risk of developing diabetes per IQR increase in greenspace (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). Conclusions Overall, neighborhood greenspace provides a protective influence in the development of diabetes, suggesting that neighborhood-level urban planning that supports access to greenspace--along with healthy behaviors--may aid in diabetes prevention. Additional research is needed to better understand how an area’s greenness influences diabetes risk, how to better characterize greenspace exposure and usage, and future studies should focus on robust adjustment for neighborhood-level confounders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 86-104
Fernanda Cristina Barbosa Pereira Queiroz ◽  
Christian Luis Da Silva ◽  
Eduardo Lopes Marques ◽  

Devido à pandemia da Covid-19 surgiu a necessidade de distanciamento social a fim de evitar o contágio e, como consequência, o ensino remoto (ER) foi adotado como um regime excepcional por quase todas as Instituições de Educação Superior (IES), no mundo, em 2020. O principal objetivo desta pesquisa é identificar os fatores mais importantes, na percepção dos estudantes, que afetaram a satisfação deles com o ER. Este estudo utilizou uma abordagem quantitativa, por um método de amostragem não probabilístico, por meio da análise de 311 questionários respondidos online. O software R foi utilizado para a análise descritiva e o SmartPLS para analisar os dados recorrendo-se à modelagem de equações estruturais no intuito de examinar a relação entre variáveis ​​independentes e dependentes. Verificou-se uma relação positiva e significativa entre os constructos, e as duas hipóteses sugeridas foram confirmadas, sendo que H1: há uma relação positiva entre a percepção de qualidade e a satisfação dos estudantes com o ER e H2: há uma relação positiva entre as características individuais dos estudantes e a satisfação com o ER. Os resultados da pesquisa contribuem para a discussão acerca do impacto da pandemia na educação superior e agrega conhecimento em relação aos determinantes da satisfação do estudante com o ER.   Due to the Covid-19 pandemic the need for social distancing arose in order to avoid contagion and as a consequence, remote learning (RE) was adopted as an exceptional regime by almost all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), worldwide, in 2020. The main objective of this research is to identify the most important factors, in students' perception, that affected their satisfaction with ER. This study used a quantitative approach, by a non-probability sampling method, through the analysis of 311 questionnaires answered online. R software was used for descriptive analysis and SmartPLS to analyze the data using structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between independent and dependent variables. There was a positive and significant relationship between the constructs, and the two suggested hypotheses were confirmed, being H1: there is a positive relationship between perceived quality and students' satisfaction with RE and H2: there is a positive relationship between students' individual characteristics and satisfaction with RE. The research findings contribute to the discussion about the impact of pandemic on higher education and adds knowledge regarding the determinants of student satisfaction with RE.

Congying An ◽  
Jinglan Liu ◽  
Qiaohui Liu ◽  
Yuqi Liu ◽  
Xiaoli Fan ◽  

A growing number of studies suggest that the perceived sensory dimensions (PSDs) of green space are associated with stress restoration offered by restorative environment. However, there is little known about PSDs and stress restoration as well as their relationship to forest park. To fill this gap, an on-site questionnaire survey was conducted in three forest parks in Beijing, as a result of which a total number of 432 completed responses were collected and analyzed. The mean values of PSDs were used to represent PSDs of forest park. Using independent sample t-test and ANOVA, this study analyzed the individual characteristics that affected PSDs and stress restoration. Linear mixed model was used to identify the relationship between PSDs and stress restoration of forest park, which took into account the interactions of stress level and PSDs. The results showed that: (1) the perceived degree of PSDs in forest park from strong to weak was Serene, Space, Nature, Rich in species, Prospect, Refuge, Social and Culture, which varied with visitors’ gender, age, level of stress, visit frequency, activity intensity, visit duration and commuting time; (2) in PSDs, Refuge, Serene, Social and Prospect had significantly positive effects on the stress restoration of forest parks (3) there was no significant difference in the effect of the eight PSDs on the stress restoration between different stress groups; (4) stress restoration was influenced by visitors’ gender, age, visit frequency and visit duration. These findings can offer references for managers to improve the health benefits of forest park for visitors, and can enrich the knowledge about PSDs and stress restoration.

Societies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 11
Tor-Ivar Karlsen ◽  
Charlotte Kiland ◽  
Gro Kvåle ◽  
Dag Olaf Torjesen

Building heavily on the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach, Norway implemented the Public Health Act in 2012 to reduce social inequalities in health. Local public health coordinators (PHCs) at municipal levels were seen as tools to provide local intersectoral public health work. In this study, we examine factors related to intersectoral agency and if intersectoral work is understood as relevant to securing social justice in local policy outcomes. A national web-based survey in 2019 of all Norwegian PHCs (n = 428) was conducted with a response rate of 60%. Data were analysed through multiple linear regression, hierarchical regression modelling and structural equation modelling. Neither factors relating to community contexts nor individual characteristics were associated with intersectoral agency. Organisational factors, especially position size, being organised at the top level and having a job description, were significantly associated with perceptions of intersectoral agency. PHCs seeing themselves as intersectoral agents also found themselves able to affect annual budgets and policy outcomes. We conclude that municipal PHC positions can be important HiAP tools in local public health policies. However, organisational factors affect how PHCs perceive their influence and role in the municipal organisation and thereby their possibilities to influence local policymaking through intersectoral agency.

Aleksey Shilikov

The article introduces a sociological survey that featured the development of conflict management skills in municipal employees of the Belgorod region. The methods involved a questionnaire survey and a semi-structured interview of Belgorod municipal authorities, teaching staff of the Higher School of Management of the Belgorod State University, and employees of the Institute of Regional Personnel Policy of Belgorod. The reasons behind the conflicts were divided into those caused by the specifics of the municipal service, the peculiarities of team relations, and the individual characteristics of a municipal employee. The results of the study can improve the practical work of municipal personnel departments or be used in teaching sociological disciplines. Further study is required to develop diagnostic methods to identify the conflict management skills in municipal officials, collect information, define conditions and patterns of development, draft resolution procedures, etc.

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