Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.
Foodborne diseases affect an estimated 600 million people worldwide annually, with the majority of these illnesses caused by Norovirus, Vibrio, Listeria, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli. To elicit infections in humans, bacterial pathogens express a combination of virulence factors and toxins. AB5 toxins are an example of such toxins that can cause various clinical manifestations, including dehydration, diarrhea, kidney damage, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Treatment of most bacterial foodborne illnesses consists of fluid replacement and antibiotics. However, antibiotics are not recommended for infections caused by Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) because of the increased risk of HUS development, although there are conflicting views and results in this regard. Lack of effective treatment strategies for STEC infections pose a public health threat during outbreaks; therefore, the debate on antibiotic use for STEC infections could be further explored, along with investigations into antibiotic alternatives. The overall goal of this review is to provide a succinct summary on the mechanisms of action and the pathogenesis of AB5 and related toxins, as expressed by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with a primary focus on Shiga toxins (Stx). The role of Stx in human STEC disease, detection methodologies, and available treatment options are also briefly discussed.
Social and behavioural drivers of inappropriate antibiotic use contribute to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Recent reports indicate the Australian community consumes more than twice the defined daily doses (DDD) of antibiotics per 1000 population than in Sweden, and about 20% more than in the United Kingdom (UK). We compare measures of public knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) surrounding AMR in Australia, the UK and Sweden against the policy approaches taken in these settings to address inappropriate antibiotic use.
National antimicrobial stewardship policies in Australia, Sweden, and the UK were reviewed, supplemented by empirical studies of their effectiveness. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL databases for primary studies of the general public’s KAP around antibiotic use and AMR in each setting (January 1 2011 until July 30 2021). Where feasible, we meta-analysed data on the proportion of participants agreeing with identical or very similar survey questions, using a random effects model.
Policies in Sweden enact tighter control of community antibiotic use; reducing antibiotic use through public awareness raising is not a priority. Policies in the UK and Australia are more reliant on practitioner and public education to encourage appropriate antibiotic use. 26 KAP were included in the review and 16 were meta-analysable. KAP respondents in Australia and the UK are consistently more likely to report beliefs and behaviours that are not aligned with appropriate antibiotic use, compared to participants in similar studies conducted in Sweden.
Interactions between public knowledge, attitudes and their impacts on behaviours surrounding community use of antibiotics are complex and contingent. Despite a greater focus on raising public awareness in Australia and the UK, neither antibiotic consumption nor community knowledge and attitudes are changing significantly. Clearly public education campaigns can contribute to mitigating AMR. However, the relative success of policy approaches taken in Sweden suggests that practice level interventions may also be required to activate prescribers and the communities they serve to make substantive reductions in inappropriate antibiotic use.
In two sequential replicates (n = 90 and n = 96 feedlot finisher cattle, respectively) we measured the impact of an Enterococcus faecium-based probiotic (DFM) and an altered feedlot pen environment on antimicrobial resistance among fecal enterococci in cattle fed (or, not fed) the macrolide tylosin. Diluted fecal samples were spiral-plated on plain and antibiotic-supplemented m-Enterococcus agar. In the first replicate, tylosin significantly (p < 0.05) increased the relative quantity of erythromycin-resistant enterococci. This effect was diminished in cattle fed the DFM in conjunction with tylosin, indicating a macrolide susceptible probiotic may help mitigate resistance. A similar observed effect was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) in the second replicate. Isolates were speciated and resistance phenotypes were obtained for E. faecium and E. hirae. Susceptible strains of bacteria fed as DFM may prove useful for mitigating the selective effects of antibiotic use; however, the longer-term sustainability of such an approach remains unclear.
There is an increasing focus on researching children admitted to hospital with new variants of COVID-19, combined with concerns with hyperinflammatory syndromes and the overuse of antimicrobials. Paediatric guidelines have been produced in Bangladesh to improve their care. Consequently, the objective is to document the management of children with COVID-19 among 24 hospitals in Bangladesh. Key outcome measures included the percentage prescribed different antimicrobials, adherence to paediatric guidelines and mortality rates using purposely developed report forms. The majority of 146 admitted children were aged 5 years or under (62.3%) and were boys (58.9%). Reasons for admission included fever, respiratory distress and coughing; 86.3% were prescribed antibiotics, typically parenterally, on the WHO ‘Watch’ list, and empirically (98.4%). There were no differences in antibiotic use whether hospitals followed paediatric guidance or not. There was no prescribing of antimalarials and limited prescribing of antivirals (5.5% of children) and antiparasitic medicines (0.7%). The majority of children (92.5%) made a full recovery. It was encouraging to see the low hospitalisation rates and limited use of antimalarials, antivirals and antiparasitic medicines. However, the high empiric use of antibiotics, alongside limited switching to oral formulations, is a concern that can be addressed by instigating the appropriate programmes.
Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to public health and safety across the globe. Many factors contribute to antibiotic resistance, most especially are the concerns of excessive prescribing and misuse of antibiotics. Because patient expectations for antibiotics may contribute to prescriber pressures, experts recommend targeting antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) education efforts towards prescribers as well as patients in outpatient settings. Undergraduate university students are a unique and promising target population for AMS efforts because they are in a transformative life stage of social, cognitive, and physical development in which they are learning to independently care for themselves without the presence or influence of parents. By introducing AMS education during this transition, university students may adopt positive antibiotic use behaviors that they will carry throughout their lives. Not only will their personal health be improved, but widespread adoption of AMS in university settings may have a broader effect on public health of present and future generations. Despite public health opportunities, minimal research has examined AMS in university health settings. This article explores current evidence on knowledge, attitudes, and use of antibiotics among university students and discusses opportunities for AMS initiatives in college and university health settings.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Multiple strategies are used to identify newborn infants at high risk of culture-confirmed early-onset sepsis (EOS). Delivery characteristics have been used to identify preterm infants at lowest risk of infection to guide initiation of empirical antibiotics. Our objectives were to identify term and preterm infants at lowest risk of EOS using delivery characteristics and to determine antibiotic use among them.
This was a retrospective cohort study of term and preterm infants born January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2014, with blood culture with or without cerebrospinal fluid culture obtained ≤72 hours after birth. Criteria for determining low EOS risk included: cesarean delivery, without labor or membrane rupture before delivery, and no antepartum concern for intraamniotic infection or nonreassuring fetal status. We determined the association between these characteristics, incidence of EOS, and antibiotic duration among infants without EOS.
Among 53 575 births, 7549 infants (14.1%) were evaluated and 41 (0.5%) of those evaluated had EOS. Low-risk delivery characteristics were present for 1121 (14.8%) evaluated infants, and none had EOS. Whereas antibiotics were initiated in a lower proportion of these infants (80.4% vs 91.0%, P < .001), duration of antibiotics administered to infants born with and without low-risk characteristics was not different (adjusted difference 0.6 hours, 95% CI [−3.8, 5.1]).
Risk of EOS among infants with low-risk delivery characteristics is extremely low. Despite this, a substantial proportion of these infants are administered antibiotics. Delivery characteristics should inform empirical antibiotic management decisions among infants born at all gestational ages.
During the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, antibiotic usage among COVID-19 patients was noted to be high in many countries. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic usage and factors affecting antibiotic usage among COVID-19 patients during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia.
This was a cross-sectional study that involved reviewing medical records of COVID-19 Malaysian patients aged 12 and above who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and received treatment in 18 COVID-19 hospitals from February to April 2020. A minimum sample of 375 patients was required. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with antibiotic usage. Variables with p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
A total of 4043 cases were included for analysis. The majority of the patients (87.6%) were non-smokers, male (65.0%), and had at least one comorbidity (37.0%). The median age was 35 years (IQR: 38). The prevalence of antibiotic usage was 17.1%, with 5.5% of them being prescribed with two or more types of antibiotics. The most frequent antibiotics prescribed were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (37.8%), ceftriaxone (12.3%), piperacillin/tazobactam (13.3%), azithromycin (8.3%), and meropenem (7.0%). Male patients (adjusted OR 1.53), who had a comorbidity (adjusted OR 1.36), associated with more severe stage of COVID-19 (adjusted OR 6.50–37.06), out-of-normal range inflammatory blood parameters for neutrophils, lymphocytes, and C-reactive protein (adjusted OR 2.04–3.93), corticosteroid use (adjusted OR 3.05), and ICU/HDU admission (adjusted OR 2.73) had higher odds of antibiotic use.
The prevalence of antibiotic usage in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic was low, with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid as the most common antibiotic of choice. The study showed that clinicians rationalized antibiotic usage based on clinical assessment, supported by relevant laboratory parameters.