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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rawan Alharbi ◽  
Chunlin Feng ◽  
Sougata Sen ◽  
Jayalakshmi Jain ◽  
Josiah Hester ◽  
...  
Keyword(s):  

2021 ◽  
Vol 104 (11) ◽  
Author(s):  
Stefano Bosco ◽  
Mónica Benito ◽  
Christoph Adelsberger ◽  
Daniel Loss

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. e265101220448
Author(s):  
Patricia Sardinha Leonardo ◽  
Rodrigo Leal de Paiva Carvalho ◽  
Sérgio Gomes da Silva ◽  
Gustavo Duarte Mendes ◽  
Gilbberto de Nucci ◽  
...  

The inflammatory Muscle-skeletal disorders are responsible for a high economic impact on public health and Pharmacological treatments produce important renal and gastric toxicity especially. However, the real effects of topical NSAID’s still controversial. Photobiomodulation therapy has been used to treat musculo-skeletal conditions.  The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Photobiomodulation on topical absorption of sodium diclofenac in healthy volunteers. Methods. The volunteers were selected after an assessment of their state of health. The study began with 12 volunteers with dark skin and 12 white skin. The study was designed to determinate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The volunteers received during hospitalization 5g diclofenac gel in the presence or not of photobiomodulation, following the randomization. A Laser Cluster with 14 laser diodes (100 mW/diode) delivered 3 Joules of Energy/diode (spot area 0.028 Cm2). Blood samples were taken for determination of plasmatic diclofenac concentration (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 24h) by tandem mass spectrometry. Low Power Laser Therapy operating at a wavelength of 650 nm was effective to enhance the absorption of diclofenac emulgel in white-skinned individuals but not in black-skinned individuals. Maximum plasma concentrations were higher in the white-skinned group of volunteers who received low-power laser irradiation prior to drug application when compared to the placebo group.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nian-Ke Chen ◽  
Bai-Qian Wang ◽  
Xue-Peng Wang ◽  
Xian-Bin Li

Abstract Ultrafast laser-induced phase/structural transitions show a great potential in optical memory and optical computing technologies, which are believed to have advantages of ultrafast speed, low power consumption, less heat diffusion and remote control as compared with electronic devices. Here, we review and discuss the principles of orbital-selective electronic excitation and its roles in phase/structural transitions of phase-change memory (PCM) materials, including Sc0.2Sb1.8Te3 and GeTe phases. It is demonstrated, that the mechanism can influence the dynamics or results of structural transitions, such as an ultrafast amorphization of Sc0.2Sb1.8Te3 and a non-volatile order-to-order structural transition of GeTe. Without thermal melting, these structural transitions have the advantages of ultrafast speed and low power consumption. It suggests that the orbital-selective electronic excitation can play a significant role in discovering new physics of phase change and shows a potential for new applications.


Author(s):  
Maxence Dauphin ◽  
Baptiste Fix ◽  
Julien Jaeck ◽  
Riad Haïdar

AbstractWe introduce a 3-step method to optimise a nanostructured photodetector for infrared sensing through non degenerated two-photon absorption (NDTPA). First, the nanostructure is designed to tailor the distribution and concentration of both pump and signal intensities within the absorbing layer, thus leading to a gain in two-photon absorption. Second, the issue of the competition between NDTPA and other sub-bandgap transitions is tackled with a new figure of merit to favor as much as possible NDTPA while minimising other absorption processes. Third, a refined computation of the gain and the figure of merit is done to consider focused beams. Finally, two scenarios based on low power infrared photodetection are investigated to illustrate the flexibility and adaptibility of the method. It is shown that the gain is up to 7 times higher and the figure of merit is up to 20 times higher compared to the literature.


Author(s):  
Shaik Mahammad Ameer Afridi

Abstract: Today's high-performance processor is built with arithmetic logic units that add and subtract key components. Design considerations related to low power and high performance digital VLSI circuits have become more prevalent in today's world. In order to develop low-power and high-performance processors, the designers need to design their adder circuits with the required speed and power dissipation for their applications. This topic introduces the concept of a adder using MGDI Technique. The Exact Speculative Carry Look Ahead Adder the use of the Modified-GDI (Modified-Gate Diffusion Input) is cautioned in this work. The delay, location and energy trade off performs a integral role in VLSI. We already comprehend that designs which are of CMOS fashion occupy extra area might also eat extra strength consumption. The switching conduct of the circuit reason the heating up of integrated circuits affects the working stipulations of the purposeful unit. The adders are the most important parts of countless applications such as microprocessors, microcontrollers and digital signal processors and additionally in actual time applications. Hence it is necessary to minimize the adder blocks to format a perfect processor. This work is proposed on a 16 bit carry seem to be in advance adder is designed through using MGDI gate and 4T XOR gates and a speculator blocks. The proposed MGDI raise Look Ahead adder occupies 68% much less region and the strength consumption and the propagation extend additionally considerably reduces when in contrast to the traditional carry Look Ahead adder why because the variety transistors extensively reduces from 1448 (Conventional) to 456 (Proposed CLA). The simulation consequences of the proposed format carried out in Xilinx. Keywords: Delay, power dissipation, voltage, transistor sizing.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (18) ◽  
pp. 2281
Author(s):  
Lingfei Mo ◽  
Xinao Chen ◽  
Gang Wang

In recent years, spiking neural networks (SNNs) have attracted increasingly more researchers to study by virtue of its bio-interpretability and low-power computing. The SNN simulator is an essential tool to accomplish image classification, recognition, speech recognition, and other tasks using SNN. However, most of the existing simulators for spike neural networks are clock-driven, which has two main problems. First, the calculation result is affected by time slice, which obviously shows that when the calculation accuracy is low, the calculation speed is fast, but when the calculation accuracy is high, the calculation speed is unacceptable. The other is the failure of lateral inhibition, which severely affects SNN learning. In order to solve these problems, an event-driven high accurate simulator named EDHA (Event-Driven High Accuracy) for spike neural networks is proposed in this paper. EDHA takes full advantage of the event-driven characteristics of SNN and only calculates when a spike is generated, which is independent of the time slice. Compared with previous SNN simulators, EDHA is completely event-driven, which reduces a large amount of calculations and achieves higher computational accuracy. The calculation speed of EDHA in the MNIST classification task is more than 10 times faster than that of mainstream clock-driven simulators. By optimizing the spike encoding method, the former can even achieve more than 100 times faster than the latter. Due to the cross-platform characteristics of Java, EDHA can run on x86, amd64, ARM, and other platforms that support Java.


Radiation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 250-260
Author(s):  
Roy Shor ◽  
Yael Nemirovsky

This study focuses on a CMOS sensing system for Radon and alpha radiation, which is based on a semiconductor device that is integrated monolithically on a single chip with the Readout Circuitry, thus allowing fabrication of a low-power and low-cost sensing system. The new sensor is based on a new mosaic design of an array of Floating Gate non-volatile memory-like transistors, which are implemented in a standard CMOS technology, with a single polysilicon layer. The transistors are electrically combined in parallel and are operated at subthreshold, thus achieving very high sensitivity and reduced noise. The sensing system’s architecture and design is presented, along with key operation concepts, characterization, and analysis results. Alpha and radon exposure results are compared to commercial radon detectors. The new sensor, dubbed TODOS-Radon sensor, measures continuously, is battery operated and insensitive to humidity.


Author(s):  
Ankur Kumar ◽  
R. K. Nagaria

This paper proposes a novel method to control leakage and noise in domino circuits for wide fan-in OR logic with low power consumption, low process variation, and higher noise margin under the similar delay condition. In the proposed method, output and dynamic nodes are isolated from the PDN (Pull-Down Network) to improve the noise immunity and reduce switching activity. Further, with the aid of a transistor in the stack, the sub-threshold current is reduced. Thus, the proposed domino is applicable for high-speed and low-power applications in deep sub-micro-range. Simulation results show that the proposed domino improves the noise immunity and figure of merit (FOM) by factors of 1.95 and 2.34, respectively, with respect to the conventional domino with a footer. Along with this improvement, 26% reduction is also observed in power consumption. The entire simulations for all the domino circuits are done at 45-nm CMOS technology by using SPECTRE simulator under the Cadence Virtuoso environment.


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