High d33 Lead-Free Piezoceramics: A Review

P. K. Panda ◽  
B. Sahoo ◽  
T. S. Thejas ◽  
M. Krishna
2020 ◽  
Vol 90 (10) ◽  
pp. 68-73
Kelley Dearing Smith ◽  
Daniel Tegene ◽  
Denise Aaron ◽  
Emily Fritz

2015 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 2641-2648
Rizk Mostafa Shalaby ◽  
Mohamed Munther ◽  
Abu-Bakr Al-Bidawi ◽  
Mustafa Kamal

The greatest advantage of Sn-Zn eutectic is its low melting point (198 oC) which is close to the melting point. of Sn-Pb eutectic solder (183 oC), as well as its low price per mass unit compared with Sn-Ag and Sn-Ag-Cu solders. In this paper, the effect of 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 wt. % Al as ternary additions on melting temperature, microstructure, microhardness and mechanical properties of the Sn-9Zn lead-free solders were investigated. It is shown that the alloying additions of Al at 4 wt. % to the Sn-Zn binary system lead to lower of the melting point to 195.72 ˚C.  From x-ray diffraction analysis, an aluminium phase, designated α-Al is detected for 4 and 5 wt. % Al compositions. The formation of an aluminium phase causes a pronounced increase in the electrical resistivity and microhardness. The ternary Sn-9Zn-2 wt.%Al exhibits micro hardness superior to Sn-9Zn binary alloy. The better Vickers hardness and melting points of the ternary alloy is attributed to solid solution effect, grain size refinement and precipitation of Al and Zn in the Sn matrix.  The Sn-9%Zn-4%Al alloy is a lead-free solder designed for possible drop-in replacement of Pb-Sn solders.  

2013 ◽  
Vol 58 (2) ◽  
pp. 529-533 ◽  
R. Koleňák ◽  
M. Martinkovič ◽  
M. Koleňáková

The work is devoted to the study of shear strength of soldered joints fabricated by use of high-temperature solders of types Bi-11Ag, Au-20Sn, Sn-5Sb, Zn-4Al, Pb-5Sn, and Pb-10Sn. The shear strength was determined on metallic substrates made of Cu, Ni, and Ag. The strength of joints fabricated by use of flux and that of joints fabricated by use of ultrasonic activation without flux was compared. The obtained results have shown that in case of soldering by use of ultrasound (UT), higher shear strength of soldered joints was achieved with most solders. The highest shear strength by use of UT was achieved with an Au-20Sn joint fabricated on copper, namely up to 195 MPa. The lowest average values were achieved with Pb-based solders (Pb-5Sn and Pb-10Sn). The shear strength values of these solders used on Cu substrate varied from 24 to 27 MPa. DSC analysis was performed to determine the melting interval of lead-free solders.

2019 ◽  
Subhajit Bhattacharjee ◽  
Sonu Pratap Chaudhary ◽  
Sayan Bhattacharyya

<p>Metal halide perovskites with high absorption coefficient, direct generation of free charge carriers, excellent ambipolar charge carrier transport properties, point-defect tolerance, compositional versatility and solution processability are potentially transforming the photovoltaics and optoelectronics industries. However their limited ambient stability, particularly those of iodide perovskites, obscures their use as photocatalysts especially in aqueous medium. In an unprecedented approach we have exploited the photo-absorption property of the less toxic lead-free Cs<sub>3</sub>Bi<sub>2</sub>X<sub>9 </sub>(X = Br, I) nanocrystals (NCs) to catalyse the degradation of water pollutant organic dye, methylene blue (MB) in presence of visible light at room temperature. After providing a proof-of-concept with bromide perovskites in isopropanol, the perovskites are employed as photocatalysts in water medium by designing perovskite/Ag<sub>2</sub>S and perovskite/TiO<sub>2 </sub>composite systems, with Type I (or quasi Type II) and Type II alignments, respectively. Ag<sub>2</sub>S and TiO<sub>2</sub> coatings decelerate penetration of water into the perovskite layer while facilitating charge carrier extraction. With a minimal NC loading, Cs<sub>3</sub>Bi<sub>2</sub>I<sub>9</sub>/Ag<sub>2</sub>S degrades ~90% MB within an hour. Our approach has the potential to unravel the photocatalytic properties of metal halide perovskites for a wide spectrum of real-life applications. </p>

Jiewei Liu ◽  
Masashi Ozaki ◽  
Yukie Katsuki ◽  
Taketo Handa ◽  
Ryosuke Nishikubo ◽  

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