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Author(s):  
Cailiang Yue ◽  
Chang-Qing Zhu ◽  
Wenting Zheng ◽  
Jinli Qiu ◽  
Zhiling Du ◽  
...  

High-efficient mineralization of refractory organic pollutants is an admittedly difficult problem for most photocatalytic processes. Herein, a hierarchical type-II heterojunction of Bi2MoO6/Bi/BiOBr-x (BMO/Bi/BOB-x) was successfully fabricated via one-pot solvothermal method....


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Suhua Xu ◽  
Peng Zhang ◽  
Liyuan Hu ◽  
Wenhao Zhou ◽  
Guoqiang Cheng

Objective: The aim of this single-center retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment options, and course of neonatal-onset congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS).Methods: We included all patients with CPSS who presented with clinical symptoms within the neonatal period in our institution between 2015 and 2020.Results: Sixteen patients were identified, including 13 patients with intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IPSS) and three patients with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (EPSS). The median age of diagnosis was 16 days (range prenatal 24 weeks−12 months). Hyperammonemia (60%), neonatal cholestasis (44%), elevated liver enzyme (40%), hypoglycemia (40%), thrombocytopenia (38%), and coagulation abnormalities (23%) appeared in neonatal CPSS. Twelve patients (75%) presented with congenital anomalies, of which congenital heart disease (CHD) (44%) was the most common. Thirteen patients with IPSS initially underwent conservative treatment, but two of them were recommended for the catheter interventional therapy and liver transplantation, respectively, due to progressive deterioration of liver function. Spontaneous closure occurred in nine patients with IPSS. The shunt was closed using transcatheter embolization in one patient with EPSS type II. Another patient with EPSS type II underwent surgical treatment of CHD firstly. The remaining patient with EPSS type Ib received medical therapy and refused liver transplantation.Conclusion: Hyperammonemia, neonatal cholestasis, elevated liver enzyme, hypoglycemia, and thrombocytopenia are the main complications of neonatal CPSS. Moreover, CPSS is associated with multiple congenital abnormalities, especially CHD. Intrahepatic portosystemic shunts may close spontaneously, and conservative treatment can be taken first. Extrahepatic portosystemic shunts should be closed to prevent complications.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Cheng Luo ◽  
Shalini Srivast

Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common type of arthritis, increasing with advancing age and external factors such as obesity. Joint health has historically relied on nutritional supplements derived from herbs and other natural products. Undenatured collagen type II demonstrated positive results with substantially lower therapeutic doses. Hence, the present study was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of Native CT-II®, an undenatured type II collagen, on the symptomatic effects in individuals having joint pain due to OA. Methods A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel study was conducted on 101 slightly overweight volunteers, whose knee joint pain VAS score was ≥ 60 had been included in the study for at least three months. The participants were divided into three groups, with similar demographic and baseline characteristics. The test product containing Native CT-II®, positive control containing G+C, and the placebo were taken six tablets per day for 84 consecutive days (Three capsules to be taken post-breakfast and three capsules post-dinner). Improvement in overall joint health in each participant from baseline to end of the study was measured by WOMAC, self-administered questionnaire in Native CT-II® as compared to G+C and placebo group. Results This study demonstrated that Native CT-II® had an effective impact on the symptomatic effects of knee impairment associated with OA and in the quality of life of the participants. After 84 days, participants receiving Native CT-II® and G+C had significant improvement in overall joint health as compared to participants receiving placebo. Conclusion Native CT-II® was shown to be effective in relieving symptoms and improving quality of life for patients with knee joint pain associated with OA. Trial registration: The trial was registered with the clinical trial registry of the U.S. National Library of Medicine under National Institutes of Health (NIH) (https://clinicaltrials.gov/) with the National Clinical Trial (NCT) No: NCT04470336, Date of first registration: 14/07/2020.


2021 ◽  
pp. 2100327
Author(s):  
Mingxia Du ◽  
Haibin Jiang ◽  
Hongxian Liu ◽  
Xin Zhao ◽  
Yu Zhou ◽  
...  

Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2) have been found in patients with congenital heart disease-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (CHD-PAH). Our study aimed to clarify whether deficient BMPR2 signalling acts through downstream effectors, inhibitors of DNA-binding proteins (IDs), during heart development to contribute to the progress of PAH in CHD patients. To confirm that IDs are downstream effectors of BMPR2 signalling in cardiac mesoderm progenitors (CMPs) and contribute to PAH, we generated Cardiomyocytes (CMs)-specific Id 1/3 knockout mice (Ids cDKO), and 12/25 developed mild PAH with altered haemodynamic indices and pulmonary vascular remodelling. Moreover, we generated ID1 and ID3 double-knockout (IDs KO) human embryonic stem cells that recapitulated the BMPR2 signalling deficiency of CHD-PAH iPSCs. CMs differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from CHD-PAH patients with BMPR mutations exhibited dysfunctional cardiac differentiation and reduced Ca2+ transients, as evidenced by confocal microscopy experiments. Smad1/5 phosphorylation and ID1 and ID3 expression were reduced in CHD-PAH iPSCs and in Bmpr2+/– rat right ventricles. Moreover, Ultrasound revealed that 33% of Ids cDKO mice had detectable defects in their ventricular septum and pulmonary regurgitation. CMs isolated from the mouse right ventricles also showed reduced Ca2+ transients and shortened sarcomeres. Single-cell RNA(scRNA)-seq analysis revealed impaired differentiation of CMPs and downregulated USP9X expression in IDs KO cells compared with wild-type (WT) cells. We found that BMPR2 signals through IDs and USP9X to regulate cardiac differentiation, and the loss of ID1 and ID3 expression contributes to CM dysfunction in CHD-PAH patients with BMPR2 mutations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rachel R Corrigan ◽  
Helen Piontkivska ◽  
Gemma Casadesus

: The metabolic peptide hormone amylin, in concert with other metabolic peptides like insulin and leptin, has an important role in metabolic homeostasis and has been intimately linked to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interestingly, this pancreatic amyloid peptide is known to self-aggregate much like amyloid-beta and has been reported to be a source of pathogenesis in both Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer’s disease. The traditional “gain of toxic function” properties assigned to amyloid proteins are however contrasted by several reports highlighting neuroprotective effects amylin and a recombinant analog, pramlintide, in the context of these two diseases. This suggests that pharmacological therapies aimed at modulating the amylin receptor may be therapeutically beneficial for AD development, as they already are for T2DMM. However, the nature of amylin receptor signaling is highly complex and not well studied in the context of CNS function. Therefore, to begin to address this pharmacological paradox in amylin research, the goal of this review is to summarize the current research on amylin signaling and CNS functions and critically address paradoxical nature of this hormone's signaling in the context of AD pathogenesis.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Kosuke Narumiya ◽  
Kenji Kudo ◽  
Yosuke Yagawa ◽  
Shinsuke Maeda ◽  
Yukinori Toyoshima ◽  
...  

Abstract BackgroundIncidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) is increasing in Japan as well as Western Country. However, there is no consensus on treatment strategy. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal range of resection and lymph node dissection for Siewert type II AEG and to develop a strategy for treatment that includes adjuvant therapy to improve the survival rate. MethodsWe retrospectively investigate 88 cases of advanced AEG in patients who underwent surgery with lymph node dissection with 52 cases of superficial AEG, 23 of whom underwent endoscopic treatment (endoscopic mucosal resection [EMR] or endoscopic submucosal dissection [ESD]), and 29 of whom underwent surgery with lymph node dissection. ResultsThe optimal lymph nodes to resect for advanced AEG were in the inferior mediastinum (No. 110), in the lesser curvature (Nos. 1, 3, 7), No. 2, and No 11. According to area of actual lymph node metastasis, lymphadenectomy of lymph nodes 1, 2, 3, 7, and 11 was sufficient to improve survival of patients with superficial AEG. If esophageal involvement was >40 mm, we performed esophagectomy through right thoracotomy. The 5-year overall survival rates were 88% for patients treated with ESD, 78% for those with superficial AEG who under-went surgery, and 24% for those with advanced AEG (p = 0.011). Despite of lymph node dissection, twenty-five patients experienced lymph node metastasis after operation in advanced AEG and there were many disseminations in advanced AEG. There were no differences in survival between patients who received postoperative adjuvant therapy with S-1 for advanced AEG and those who received surgery alone (p = 0.5192).Conclusion Although surgical procedures of superficial and locally advanced AEG are standardized, the role of adjuvant therapy for AEG is still controversial. We recommend nab-paclitaxel plus radiotherapy for advanced AEG as neoadjuvant therapy.


Diabetology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 250-258
Author(s):  
Judith N. Semporé ◽  
Mamounata Diao ◽  
Lassina Ouattara ◽  
Paulin Ouoba ◽  
Windmi Kagambega ◽  
...  

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate α-amylase inhibitory effects of hydroethanolic extracts of bark from Daniella oliveri, Sclerocarya birrea, Maranthes polyandra, and Pteleopsis suberosa to fight type-II diabetes. Methods: Compound extractions were performed by hydroethanol maceration followed by liquid-liquid fractionation with solvents. TLC profiling was carried out with different fractions. The inhibitory effects of plant extracts on α-amylase activity were determined using rice starch as a substrate. Results: TLC profiling of different fractions showed different phytochemical compounds. The hydroethanolic plant extracts exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of α-amylase. D. oliveri displayed competitive inhibition, M. polyandra and S. birrea showed uncompetitive inhibition and Pteleopsis suberosa exerted mixed-inhibition. M. polyandra extract exerted the highest inhibitory effect (IC50 = 0.5 mg/mL). Conclusions: The barks of M. polyandra exhibit a remarkable α-amylase inhibitory effect which can be a novel source of antidiabetic molecules.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xia Lin ◽  
Zhengyan Li ◽  
Chenjun Tan ◽  
Xiaoshuang Ye ◽  
Jie Xiong ◽  
...  

BackgroundIt is unclear whether the dissection of pyloric lymph nodes (PLNs, No. 5 and No. 6 lymph nodes) is necessary for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) with a tumor diameter >4 cm based on current guidelines. This study aimed at evaluating whether pyloric node lymphadenectomy is essential for patients with Siewert type II/III AEG according to different tumor diameters.MethodsThis study included 300 patients on whom transabdominal total gastrectomy was performed for Siewert type II/III AEG at a high-volume center in China from January 2006 to December 2015. The index of estimated benefit from lymph node dissection (IEBLD) was used to analyze the priority of pyloric lymphadenectomy.ResultsIn Siewert type II AEG, the 5-year overall survival (OS) and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) were similar between patients with PLN-positive cancer and patients of stage III AEG without PLN metastasis (23.1% vs. 30.6%, p = 0.505; 23.1% vs. 27.1%, p = 0.678). However, in Siewert type III AEG, the OS and the DFS of patients with PLN-positive cancer were significantly lower than that of patients with stage III without PLN metastasis (7.9% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.021; 0 vs. 26.8%, p = 0.005). According to the IEBLD, the dissection of PLNs did not appear to be beneficial in either Siewert type II AEG or type III AEG, whereas a stratified analysis revealed that PLN dissection yielded a high therapeutic benefit for Siewert type II AEG with tumor diameters >4 cm.ConclusionWe recommended that the PLNs be dissected in Siewert type II AEG when a tumor diameter is >4 cm. Total gastrectomy should be optional for Siewert type II AEG with a tumor diameter >4 cm and Siewert type III AEG.


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