melting point
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2022 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. 101334
Arad Azizi ◽  
Xiaobo Chen ◽  
Feilin Gou ◽  
Fatemeh Hejripour ◽  
Jacob A. Goodman ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 208 ◽  
pp. 114336
Tanner Kirk ◽  
Brent Vela ◽  
Seth Mehalic ◽  
Khaled Youseff ◽  
Raymundo Arróyave

2022 ◽  
Vol 51 (4) ◽  
pp. 915-929
Lyubov Tereshchuk ◽  
Konstantin Zagorodnikov ◽  
Kseniya Starovoitova ◽  
Pavel Viushinskij

Introduction. Modern food science needs new research of food emulsifiers, their composition, properties and effect on the structural characteristics of emulsions. It looks for modern technological solutions on how to select proper emulsifiers and their mixes to produce emulsions with different mass fractions of fat. The research objective was to study the effect of physical and chemical indicators of surfactants on the properties of food emulsions, as well as to develop practical recommendations for the selection of surfactants for various types of products. Study objects and methods. The research featured model dairy fat emulsions and laboratory-made vegetable oil, as well as hard and soft mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids and lecithins. The emulsifiers were used to determine the melting point, fatty acid composition, iodine number, and solid triglyceride content at various temperatures. The melting point of emulsifiers was determined by fixing the melting temperature in a capillary oven. To identify the fatty acid composition, the methyl esters of fatty acids were subjected to the chromatogram method. After that, the separated components and their quantity were determined by the area of the peaks. The content of solid triglycerides in the emulsifiers was determined by the method of nuclear magnetic resonance. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was obtained from the manufacturer's specifications. Results and discussion. The solid mono- and diglycerides appeared to have a high content of stearic and palmitic acids. Oleic acid predominated in soft monoglycerides; unsaturated fatty acids (linolenic and oleic) also predominated in the monoglycerides/lecithin complex emulsifier. Solid monoglycerides had a high content of solid triglycerides at 35°C (82.93%), which correlated with the high melting point (80°C) and the lowest iodine number (3 mg I2/100 g) of all the samples. The optimal ratio of vegetable oil and the emulsifier was defined empirically. The emulsifiers were dissolved in refined deodorized vegetable oil at 5–7°C above the melting point of the emulsifier. The resulting ratios were between 6:1 and 10:1. The samples of creamy vegetable spreads were obtained using the studied emulsifiers and their compositions in different doses and ratios. The crystallization temperature and phase transition time were determined when studying the process of emulsion overcooling. The article introduces a list of technological and physicochemical indicators of emulsifiers: the fatty acid composition, the degree of saturation, the melting point, and the content of solid triglycerides. By finding out the physicochemical parameters of emulsifiers, producers can vary the ratio of the components of emulsifying compositions to achieve the desired properties of food emulsions. The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance also proved to be an important index since the proportion of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups in surfactants affects the type of emulsions and makes it possible to adjust the fat content of the finished product. Conclusion. The research results can expand the theoretical foundations of food emulsions. The article contains scientifically grounded recommendations on how to select optimal surfactants. The research opens up prospects for further studies of emulsifiers and their effect on the quality of finished products.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
pp. 59-70
E. S. Prokhorov

A mathematical model of gas detonation of fuel-enriched mixtures of hydrocarbons with oxygen has been formulated, which makes it possible to numerically study the equilibrium flows of detonation products in the presence of free carbon condensation. Reference data for graphite were used to describe the thermodynamic properties of carbon condensate. The calculations are compared with the known results of experimental studies in which, when detonating an acetylene-oxygen mixture in a pipe closed at one end, it is possible to obtain nanoscale particles from a carbon material with special properties. It is assumed that the melting point of such a material is lower than that of graphite and is about 3100 K. Only with such an adjustment of the melting temperature, the best agreement (with an accuracy of about 3 %) was obtained between the calculated and experimental dependence of the detonation front velocity on the molar fraction of acetylene in the mixture.


Objective: The aim of proposed work is to develop and screen cyclodextrin based Nanosponge loaded with poorly soluble anticancer drug and to optimize most suitable Nanosystem with increased solubility and dissolution rate. Methods: Cyclodextrinnanosponge (CDNS) was prepared using pyromelliticdianhydride as a crosslinker for beta cyclodextrin monomer. Cyclodextrinnanosponge and curcumin were taken in 1:1 w/w proportion. The resultant curcumin loaded nanosponges were dried at 50±0.5 °C for 24 h. Results: The absorbance maxima for Curcumin was seen at 424.0 nm and for cyclodextrin was seen at 290.0 nm, The average melting point of pure drug is 181 °C which is complies with Stander melting point of drug and the aspect ratio of the nanosponge was found 1.037. Zeta potential noticed for CUR-CD-NS were more negative contrasted with separate plain CUR (−20.1±1.57) demonstrating solidness of the nanodispersion. Curcumin release from CUR-CDNS was upgraded to very nearly 10 folds toward the finish of 8 hour. Treatment with a combination of CUR-CDNS at 1:1 and 1:3 ratios resulted in an IC50 value was found 14.98 μg/ml. Conclusion: In vitro cytotoxicity study and combination index analysis showed the synergistic effect of CUR-CDNS against MCF-7 cells. The present study reveals that the combination of curcumin results in higher cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells.

2022 ◽  
Yusuke Kimura ◽  
Masashi Ikeuchi

Abstract Here, non-electric-control SalivaDirect loop-mediated isothermal amplification (NEC-SD-LAMP), which can detect infections by analyzing viral gene expression in saliva without electrical control systems, was developed. In this method, viral genes are purified from saliva using SalivaDirect, and gene expression is analyzed by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) by adding water to the device, and the results can be visually confirmed. Melting palmitic acid maintains the optimal temperature for the LAMP reaction, as the temperature of palmitic acid is maintained at 62.9°C, its melting point. By taking advantage of the proximity of this melting point to the optimal temperature for LAMP, it is possible to perform LAMP without electricity. Using this method, adenovirus DNA was detected in saliva. Furthermore, the detection limit was 2 copies per µL, indicating that it is possible to detect viral infections in saliva even before the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Zeeshan Saleem Mufti ◽  
Rukhshanda Anjum ◽  
Ayesha Abbas ◽  
Shahbaz Ali ◽  
Muhammad Afzal ◽  

Topological indices are such numbers or set of numbers that describe topology of structures. Nearly 400 topological indices are calculated so far. The prognostication of physical, chemical, and biological attributes of organic compounds is an important and still unsolved problem of computational chemistry. Topological index is the tool to predict the physicochemical properties such as boiling point, melting point, density, viscosity, and polarity of organic compounds. In this study, some degree-based molecular descriptors of hydrocarbon structure are calculated.

2022 ◽  
E. Boytsov

Abstract. This paper is dedicated to the features of the processes of 3D printing of polymers with a high melting point such as PEEK, CarbonPEEK, ULTEM, PPSU using FDM (FFF) technology. The results of 3D printing with high-performance polymers using different conditions of the heated chamber are presented. Conclusions about the advantages of a heated chamber are made.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2155 (1) ◽  
pp. 012015
Ye Frants ◽  
A Borsuk ◽  
A Vechkutov ◽  
K Zenkov ◽  
B Zorin ◽  

Abstract For many decades, beryllium has been used as a structural element in nuclear installations as a moderator / breeder of fast neutrons. The consequence of neutron irradiation is a significant production of gas products in the form of helium and tritium, which leads to swelling and loss of strength properties of beryllium reflectors. The relatively low melting point of beryllium also imposes restrictions on the high-limit temperature regimes of the reactor core. As an alternative to pure beryllium, it is necessary to consider intermetallic compounds based on it, in particular titanium beryllide. Preliminary studies on the thermal desorption of helium and tritium from titanium beryllide have shown that this material has a much lower retention tendency and a lower release temperature. The higher melting point of titanium beryllide compared to pure beryllium is also an advantageous characteristic.Over the past years, UMP JSC, thanks to its research in this area, has achieved significant success in the development of technology for obtaining intermetallic billets and articles based on titanium and chromium beryllides. As a technology demonstrator, prototypes of structural elements of a helium-cooled blanket breeder module of the projected DEMO reactor were made by order of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.The advantages of titanium beryllide, as well as the success achieved in the production of billets and products from it, open up opportunities for a more extensive study of the nuclear, physical and mechanical properties of this material with the possibility of further use in nuclear technology, including thermonuclear reactors, and in high-temperature instrumentation.

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