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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-70
Radu-Daniel Vatavu ◽  
Jacob O. Wobbrock

We clarify fundamental aspects of end-user elicitation, enabling such studies to be run and analyzed with confidence, correctness, and scientific rigor. To this end, our contributions are multifold. We introduce a formal model of end-user elicitation in HCI and identify three types of agreement analysis: expert , codebook , and computer . We show that agreement is a mathematical tolerance relation generating a tolerance space over the set of elicited proposals. We review current measures of agreement and show that all can be computed from an agreement graph . In response to recent criticisms, we show that chance agreement represents an issue solely for inter-rater reliability studies and not for end-user elicitation, where it is opposed by chance disagreement . We conduct extensive simulations of 16 statistical tests for agreement rates, and report Type I errors and power. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations for practitioners and introduce a five-level hierarchy for elicitation studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 ◽  
pp. 100832
Ashish O. Gupta ◽  
Marc C. Patterson ◽  
Tim Wood ◽  
Julie B. Eisengart ◽  
Paul J. Orchard ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 142 ◽  
pp. 11-21
Huanan Liu ◽  
Kangli Li ◽  
Wenzhe Chen ◽  
Fan Yang ◽  
Weijun Cao ◽  

Yashaswini Kunjali Ajeeth Kumar ◽  
Adithya Kishore Saxena

In the present state of health and wellness, mental illness is always deemed less importance compared to other forms of physical illness. In reality, mental illness causes serious multi-dimensional adverse effect to the subject with respect to personal life, social life, as well as financial stability. In the area of mental illness, bipolar disorder is one of the most prominent type which can be triggered by any external stimulation to the subject suffering from this illness. There diagnosis as well as treatment process of bipolar disorder is very much different from other form of illness where the first step of impediment is the correct diagnosis itself. According to the standard body, there are classification of discrete forms of bipolar disorder viz. type-I, type-II, and cyclothymic. Which is characterized by specific mood associated with depression and mania. However, there is no study associated with mixed-mood episode detection which is characterized by combination of various symptoms of bipolar disorder in random, unpredictable, and uncertain manner. Hence, the model contributes to obtain granular information with dynamics of mood transition. The simulated outcome of the proposed system in MATLAB shows that resulting model is capable enough for detection of mixed mood episode precisely

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 129-139
Yoki Hirakawa ◽  
Sadaomi Sugimoto ◽  
Norimasa Tsuji ◽  
Takeshi Inamoto ◽  
Hiroshi Maeda

Enterococcus faecalis is an etiological agent of endodontic infections. The present study was performed to investigate the gene profiles of E. faecalis induced by type I collagen stimulation. E. faecalis ATCC 19433 was cultivated with [collagen (+)] or without type I collagen [collagen (−)], and transcriptome analysis was performed using high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 3.6 gb of information was obtained by sequence analysis and 77 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two culture conditions were identified. Among the 77 DEGs, 35 genes were upregulated in collagen (+) E. faecalis, whereas 42 genes were downregulated. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was performed and 11 GO terms, including metalloendopeptidase activity (GO:0004222) and two related GO terms (GO:0031012, GO:0044421), were significantly enriched in the set of upregulated genes. We focused on an upregulated DEG belonging to the matrixin metalloprotease gene family, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activities of the bacterial cell were examined. The generic MMP, MMP-8, and MMP-9 activities of collagen (+) E. faecalis were significantly higher than those of collagen (−) E. faecalis. These results suggested that contact with type I collagen may alter the gene expression profile of E. faecalis, and upregulation of metalloprotease genes may result in enhanced MMP activities in E. faecalis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fatemeh Saheb Sharif-Askari ◽  
Swati Goel ◽  
Narjes Saheb Sharif-Askari ◽  
Shirin Hafezi ◽  
Saba Al Heialy ◽  

It is still controversial whether chronic lung inflammation increases the risk for COVID-19. One of the risk factors for acquiring COVID-19 is the level of expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in lung tissue. It is, however, not clear how lung tissue inflammation affects expression levels of these receptors. We hence aimed to determine the level of SARS-CoV-2 receptors in lung tissue of asthmatic relative to age, gender, and asthma severity, and to investigate the factors regulating that. Therefore, gene expression data sets of well-known asthmatic cohorts (SARP and U-BIOPRED) were used to evaluate the association of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with age, gender of the asthmatic patients, and also the type of the underlying lung tissue inflammatory cytokines. Notably, ACE2 and to less extent TMPRSS2 expression were upregulated in the lung tissue of asthmatics compared to healthy controls. Although a differential expression of ACE2, but not TMPRSS2 was observed relative to age within the moderate and severe asthma groups, our data suggest that age may not be a key regulatory factor of its expression. The type of tissue inflammation, however, associated significantly with ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression levels following adjusting with age, gender and oral corticosteroids use of the patient. Type I cytokine (IFN-γ), IL-8, and IL-19 were associated with increased expression, while Type II cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) with lower expression of ACE2 in lung tissue (airway epithelium and/or lung biopsies) of moderate and severe asthmatic patients. Of note, IL-19 was associated with ACE2 expression while IL-17 was associated with TMPRSS2 expression in sputum of asthmatic subjects. In vitro treatment of bronchial fibroblasts with IL-17 and IL-19 cytokines confirmed the regulatory effect of these cytokines on SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors. Our results suggest that the type of inflammation may regulate ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in the lung tissue of asthmatics and may hence affect susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Hand ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 155894472110669
Lana L. de Lima ◽  
Diego Ariel de Lima ◽  
Thiago H. B. Freire ◽  
Francisco A. A. Almeida ◽  
José A. D. Leite ◽  

Background: The treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) by sectioning the transverse carpal ligament (TCL) is not exempt from complications. Some nerve branches may be damaged by the incision. The aim of this study is to identify and map the TCL nerve endings, serving as a guide for sectioning this structure in a zone with less nerve ending density. Methods: Ten TCLs were obtained from fresh frozen cadavers. The TCLs were measured, divided into 3 equal bands (radial, central, and ulnar), and submitted to cryostat sectioning. The sections were subjected to immunofluorescence with the protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and confocal microscopy analysis. Results: All the specimens contained type I and type IV mechanoreceptors. Neural elements occupied 0.695 ± 0.056% of the ligament area. The density of the neural elements was greater in the radial, followed by the ulnar and central bands, with 0.730 ± 0.083%, 0.686 ± 0.009%, and 0.669 ± 0.031%, respectively. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that the region with the least potential for neural element injury during TCL release is the central third near the transition with the ulnar third. When performed distally to proximally with a slight inclination from the radial to the ulnar, this release compromises the lowest nerve element density. Topographically, the proximal limit of the release is the distal wrist crease, while the distal limit is the intersection of Kaplan cardinal line and the axis of the third webspace.

2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
Kinga Żmijewska ◽  
Alicja Fąfara ◽  
Jarosław Feluś ◽  
Artur Gądek

Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a structure with altered shape, which causes it to frequently undergo injuries and lesions. Pain, limping, limited range of motion of the knee joint and swelling are characteristic signs of this pathology. Therapeutic possibilities include meniscectomy and saucerisation. Research objective: The study aim was assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness in a patient after saucerisation of discoid meniscus. Material and methods: A 12-year-old female patient after saucerisation of lower left limb lateral discoid meniscus (type I) was subjected to 32-week physical therapy treatment. Testing included determining the range of knee joint flexion and extension movements, as well as measuring the circumference of the lower extremities 15 cm above the patella. The Kujala Score (Anterior Knee Pain Scale) and Ikeuchi grading system were employed during the 1st, 3rd, 8th, 21st and 32nd weeks postoperatively. Results: In the final stage of physical therapy, complete range of knee joint motion was achieved, the Kujala Scale score totalled 98 points and the thigh circumference of the operated limb increased by 4 cm. The circumferences of the lower extremities differed by 2 cm in the final phase of physical therapy. Conclusions: The employed postoperative protocol effectively influenced the functional state of the patient.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Mohammed Mashyakhy ◽  
Mohammed Awawdeh ◽  
Abdulaziz Abu-Melha ◽  
Bushra Alotaibi ◽  
Nada AlTuwaijri ◽  

Aim. This study is aimed at combining the sample sizes of all studies on permanent maxillary teeth conducted in different regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to obtain a large sample size that represents the population of the KSA. The outcome of these combined studies is compared with international studies in terms of the number of roots, number of canals, and canal configurations on the basis of Vertucci’s classification. Methodology. The studies were systematically reviewed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis chart. Studies were included in the analysis if they were conducted in the KSA, involved permanent human maxillary teeth, and had a sample of more than 10 teeth (power). By contrast, studies were excluded if they involved deciduous teeth in the sample size, investigated nonhuman teeth, were not conducted in the KSA, and were case reports, case series, review studies, and anomalies. Relevant literature was searched from PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane, and Direct Science by two calibrated teams, starting in August 2020, without time limits or language restrictions. Results. The database searches and cross-referencing identified a total of 19 relevant studies. All maxillary canines ( N = 1,018 ) had one root, whereas 98.4% had one canal and 98.3% had Vertucci type I. Moreover, 63.2% of the maxillary first premolars had two roots, and 91.4% had two canals. The most common Vertucci root canal configuration was type IV (64.6%). The maxillary second premolars mostly had one root (84.4%) and one canal (50.4%). The most common canal configuration was Vertucci type I (47.1%). The majority of maxillary first molars had three roots (98.9%), 48.7% of which had three canals, and 46.4% had four canals. The most prevalent feature of the canal morphology of mesiobuccal roots was Vertucci type II (35.3%). The investigated maxillary second molars had three roots, 88.0% of which had three canals. Conclusion. This systematic review represents the Saudi population since samples were combined from different studies from different regions of the country. Variations in findings were observed in the same group of teeth from different regions and the same region, while the overall combined samples results fell within the range of other international studies.

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