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Published By Mdpi Ag

2073-4395
Updated Friday, 26 November 2021

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2396
Author(s):  
Muhammad Yaseen ◽  
Adeel Ahmad ◽  
Muhammad Naveed ◽  
Muhammad Asif Ali ◽  
Syed Shahid Hussain Shah ◽  
...  

Nitrogen (N) is an essential plant nutrient, therefore, N-deficient soils affect plant growth and development. The excessive and unwise application of N fertilizers result in nutrient losses and lower nutrient use efficiency that leads to the low crop productivity. Ammonia volatilization causes a major loss after N fertilization that causes environmental pollution. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of coating and uncoating N fertilizer in enhancing yield and nutrient-use efficiency with reduced ammonia emissions. The recommended rate of nitrogen and phosphorus, urea and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizers were coated manually with 1% polymer solution. DAP (coated/uncoated) and potassium were applied at the time of sowing as subsurface application. While urea (coated/uncoated) was applied as surface and subsurface application. Results showed that nutrient use efficiencies of wheat were found to be maximum with the subsurface application of coated N fertilizer which increased nutrient-use efficiency by 44.57 (N), 44.56 (P) and 44.53% (K) higher than the surface application of uncoated N fertilizer. Ammonia emissions were found the lowest with subsurface-applied coated N fertilizer. Thus, coated fertilizer applied via subsurface was found the best technique to overcome the ammonia volatilization with an improvement in the yield and nutrient-use efficiency of wheat.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2393
Author(s):  
Tengfei Pan ◽  
Muhammad Moaaz Ali ◽  
Jiangmei Gong ◽  
Wenqin She ◽  
Dongming Pan ◽  
...  

In the present study, the fruit physiology and sugar-acid ratio of 24 pomelo cultivars grown in ten different locations of the subtropical region of China were measured. The contents of soluble sugars and organic acids were quantified using high-performance (HPLC-MS) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), respectively. The results revealed that the physiological and basic quality attributes of 24 pomelo cultivars, including fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length, peel thickness, number of segments, pulp weight, pulp color, soluble solids, and Vitamin C, ranged between 264.63–1945.85 g, 8.60–19.56 g, 7.40–20.70 g, 0.46–3.33 mm, 11–18.66, 210.25–1351.66 g, 8.59–15.14 Brix°, and 34.79–84.58 mg/100 g, respectively. Soluble sugars, i.e., fructose, glucose, and sucrose, ranged between 16.25–24.25, 16.17–24.22, and 19.90–55.28 mg/g, respectively. Similarly, Organic acids, i.e., pyruvate, fumaric acids, succinic acid, tartaric acid, quinic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and cis-aconitic acid, in 24 pomelo cultivars ranged between 0.48–1.84, 0.02–0.45, 0–0.05, 0.01–0.1, 0–0.14, 3.01–11.85, 0.18–1.42, and 0.01–0.16 mg/g, respectively. The pomelo cultivars ‘Hongzuanmi’, ‘Minihong’, and ‘Hangwanmi’ exhibited maximum contents of citric acid and pyruvate and showed ultimately excessive organic acids. Overall, the ‘Guanximi’ and its budding cultivars, i.e., ‘Hongroumi’, ‘Huangjinmi’, and ‘Sanhongmi’, had the best quality fruits having maximum sugar-acid ratio. Correlation analysis showed that total soluble sugars had a significantly positive correlation with sucrose contents, while citric acids, malic acid, and pyruvate were positively correlated with total organic acids. The determined sugar-acid profile of pomelo cultivars provides the basis for future elucidation of key mechanisms regulating sugars and acids biosynthesis in pomelo.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2395
Author(s):  
Natalia Miler ◽  
Anita Wozny

Among many challenges in chrysanthemum cross-breeding, the access to viable pollen for hybridization of cultivars distant in location and different in flowering time is required. Low pollen viability along with incompatibility are mainly responsible for low seed set in modern chrysanthemum cultivars. The aim of the study was to test various temperatures and periods of pollen storage of Chrysanthemum × morifolium in order to elaborate the method of chrysanthemum pollen preservation for cross-breeding purposes. In the first experiment, in vitro pollen germination of four cultivars was investigated following storage at 20 °C, 4 °C, −20 °C, and −80 °C, for one, four, and eight weeks. The second experiment focused on in vivo seed set after one week pollen treatment with 20 °C, 4 °C, −20 °C, and −80 °C (three pollen donor cultivars tested). Pollen in vitro germinability, as well as seed set efficiency, was generally low and cultivar dependent. Independent of the period of storage, stored pollen germinability was lower (5.30–6.63%) than fresh pollen (8.15%). Incubation of pollen in −80 °C significantly increased pollen germinability (9.80%), as well as seed set efficiency in comparison to control (19.28% and 10.21%, respectively) provided the cultivars are compatible. Among cultivars, the highest germinability of pollen was found in ‘Brda’ and ‘Donna’ (8.2% and 8.23%, respectively), while ‘Bydgoszczanka’ showed the lowest germinability (2.97%). There were also pollen genotype dependent effects in in vivo seed set efficiency, which was highest in ’Brda’ (17.57%) and much lower in ‘Jutrzenka’ and ‘Polka’ (1.34% and 0.39%, respectively), which contributed to the incompatibility of crossed cultivars rather than pollen viability.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2384
Author(s):  
María Soto-Herranz ◽  
Mercedes Sánchez-Báscones ◽  
Juan Manuel Antolín-Rodríguez ◽  
Pablo Martín-Ramos

Nitrogen losses during composting processes lead to emissions problems and reduce the compost fertilizer value. Gas-permeable membranes (GPM) are a promising approach to address the challenge of reducing nitrogen losses in composting processes. This study investigated the applicability of two GPM membrane systems to recover N released during the closed composting process of laying hen manure. The ammonia (NH3) capture process was performed using two different systems over a period of 44 days: the first system (S1) consisted of 120 m of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane installed inside a 3.7 m3 portable, closed aerobic composter with forced ventilation; the second system (S2) consisted of 474 m of an ePTFE membrane placed inside as an external module designed for NH3 capture, connected to a closed aerobic composter through a pipe. In both cases, a 1 N H2SO4 acidic NH3 capture solution was circulated inside the membranes at a flow rate of 2.1 L·h−1. The amount of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) recovered was similar in the two systems (0.61 kg in S1 and 0.65 kg in S2) due to the chosen membrane surface areas, but the TAN recovery rate was six times higher in system S1 (6.9 g TAN·m−2·day−1) than in system S2 (1.9 g TAN·m−2·day−1) due to the presence of a higher NH3 concentration in the air in contact with the membrane. Given that the NH3 concentration in the atmosphere of the membrane compartment directly influences the NH3 capture, better performance of the GPM recovery system may be attained by installing it directly inside the closed aerobic composters. Regardless of the chosen configuration, this technology allows N recovery as a stable and concentrated 1.4% N ammonium salt solution, which can be used for fertigation. The presented GPM systems may be used in community composting systems with low volumes of waste to be treated or in livestock facilities that have implemented best available techniques such as solid–liquid separation or anaerobic digestion, provided that the use of GPM technology in combination with these techniques also contributes to odor mitigation and improves biogas yields.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2381
Author(s):  
Brankica Babec ◽  
Srđan Šeremešić ◽  
Nada Hladni ◽  
Nemanja Ćuk ◽  
Dušan Stanisavljević ◽  
...  

The ongoing climate change, coupled with the transformations of cultivation practices and land use in sole crop production, may cause a significant decline in sunflower yield stability. Considering that the sunflower is the third oilseed in the world oilseed market, with 45 million tons of grain per year, and that it takes the fourth position in the vegetable oil market, the implementation of sustainable growing technology in sunflower production is a necessity. Considering the above, the goal of the research was to analyze and recommend sustainable sunflower production technology in intercropping systems. A four-year trial was conducted in Serbia’s agroecological conditions (45∘34′23.2′′ N 19∘86′18.9′′ E) using a split-plot design. Two oil-type hybrids and one confectionary-type hybrid were intercropped with common vetch, red clover, and alfalfa. Common vetch × sunflower intercropping resulted in the decrease in almost all sunflower traits. Moreover, sunflower × alfalfa intercropping proved to be the most appropriate. The yield of NS Gricko and Rimi PR were statistically on the same level with sole cropping, while alfalfa biomass had better results after alfalfa was intercropped with NS Gricko, as compared to sole cropping. In view of the prevailing belief that yields are more stable in intercropping than in sole cropping, further research is needed in this respect, in addition to further research of the time and method of sowing.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2377
Author(s):  
Chuangju Ma ◽  
Jinsong Xiong ◽  
Morong Liang ◽  
Xiaoyu Liu ◽  
Xiaodong Lai ◽  
...  

WRKY protein is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factors that plays critical roles in plant stress responses, but few WRKY transcription factors have been functionally analyzed in strawberry. In this study, a Botrytis cinerea response WRKY gene, FvWRKY50, was isolated from the woodland strawberry. Expression analysis indicated that the transcript of FvWRKY50 was gradually decreased with fruit ripening, but was significantly induced by B. cinerea infection in mature strawberry fruit. Subcellular localization assay revealed that FvWRKY50 was localized in the nucleus. Several cis-elements related to pathogen responses were observed in the promoter region of FvWRKY50. Pathogen infection assay indicated that overexpression of FvWRKY50 in strawberry fruit significantly enhanced their resistance against B. cinerea, while the silencing of FvWRKY50 dramatically compromised their disease-resistant ability. The expression levels of several genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, signaling transduction, and antimicrobial protein biosynthesis were regulated to diverse extents in FvWRKY50 overexpressed and silenced fruit. Collectively, our study inferred that FvWRKY50 is a positive regulator that mediates resistance against B. cinerea through regulating some JA pathway and defense-related genes.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2380
Author(s):  
Xiang Gao ◽  
Shuxiang Zhang ◽  
Yanyan Song ◽  
Huaiyu Long

Negative pressure irrigation (NPI) to grow crops reduces the application of fertilizer and water while also promoting yield and quality. However, plantation vegetables usually require a large input of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in a greenhouse setting, which will lower the soil quality and accelerate the emission of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to explore planting lettuce under an NPI system that retrenches N fertilizer application and mitigates N2O emissions compared with conventional irrigation (CI). This research proved that under NPI conditions, nitrate and ammonium fluctuated slightly in the soil, stabilizing in the range of 18–28 mg kg−1, while that of CI was 20–55 mg kg−1. The NPI alleviated N2O emissions, and NPI-N150 and NPI-N105 decreased them by 18% and 32%, respectively, compared with those for CI-N150. The main explanation was that the NPI inhibited the formation of NO3−-N, reduced the copies number of AOA and AOB as well as the abundance of Nitrospira in the soil, and weakened the soil nitrate reductase and urease activities. The results of this research provide a reliable scientific method for reducing the use of water and N fertilizer while cultivating lettuce, as well as for reducing N2O emissions from agricultural facilities.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2379
Author(s):  
Priya Rana ◽  
Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj ◽  
Sushma Gurumayum ◽  
Kandi Sridhar

Valorization of agro-industrial waste through greener and biotechnological processes are promising approaches to minimize the generation of agro-industrial waste. Therefore, the study aimed to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes from agro-industrial waste under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions and study their application in the clarification of pumpkin juice. The SSF was performed with three different combinations of wheat bran + rice bran (WBRB), wheat bran + wheat straw (WBWS), and rice bran + wheat straw (RBWS) as dry solid substrates (1:1) using Fusarium oxysporum (MTCC 7229). The protein, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), and xylanase contents ranged from 0.98–3.90 mg/g, 5.89–6.84 U/g substrate, and 10.08–13.77 U/g substrate, respectively in different agro-industrial waste as substrates (WBRB, WBWS, RBWS, and control). The increase in enzyme concentration (0.50–2.40%) added to pumpkin juice exhibited an increased juice yield (16.30–55.60%), reduced browning index (1.03–0.70), and an increase in clarity (5.31–13.77 %T), which was further confirmed by a total variance of 84.83% by principal component analysis. Thus, the low-cost lignocellulolytic enzymes can be produced from agro-industrial waste that might have applications in food and beverage industries. Hence, this approach could be used as a long-term sustainable and circular source to valorize agro-industrial waste towards the greener future and the preservation of ecosystems.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2383
Author(s):  
Meng Zhao ◽  
Jiang Liu ◽  
Chuangchuang Zhang ◽  
Xuefeng Liang ◽  
Qian E ◽  
...  

The biogeochemistry of multi-elements, such as sulfur (S), phosphorus (P) and arsenic (As), is interlinked especially at interfaces of soil/sediment–water and plant rhizosphere. To explore the biogeochemical behavior of multi-elements such as S-P-As at interfaces, an in situ and high-resolution technology is required. In this study, we developed an in situ probe (LDHs-DGT) based on the diffusive gradients in thin-films technique using a single binding layer to realize the co-measurement of multi-elements including sulfide and oxyanions. Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized and incorporated into the probe’s binding layer. Laboratorial characterization showed that the LDHs-DGT probe had a high capacity for sulfide, phosphate and arsenate and can effectively determine their levels across a wide range of solution conditions, i.e., pH from 5 to 8 and ionic strengths from 0.005–0.01 mol L−1 NaNO3. The application potential of the LDHS-DGT probe in capturing the concentration profiles of sulfide and oxyanions across the soil/sediment–water interface at a centimeter scale was demonstrated. The synchronous co-variations of labile sulfide and phosphate were observed along an intact river sediment core, demonstrating the redox driven behaviors of oxyanions at aerobic–anaerobic transition zones. Moreover, the LDHS-DGT probe was further used to acquire the dynamic distributions of multi-elements in the plant rhizosphere at a two-dimensional millimeter scale. Compared to treatments of sodium sulfate and mercaptopygorskite fertilization, the addition of elementary S promoted the reduction of sulfate to sulfide along the whole growth stage and thus inhibited the activation of toxic metals in the rice rhizosphere. Collectively, this study provides a tool for convenient measurement of nutrients and metal(loid)s across soil–water/root interfaces at high resolution and thus, a broad application prospect of the tool in sustainable agriculture is expected.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2390
Author(s):  
Michael Stotter ◽  
Florian Wichern ◽  
Ralf Pude ◽  
Martin Hamer

Cultivation of perennials such as Miscanthus x giganteus Greef et Deuter (Mis) combines the provision of ecosystem services and the generation of additional carbon sources for farming. The potential of Mis based fertilisers, regarding immobilisation of inorganic nitrogen (N) and build-up of soil organic matter (SOM), was tested in a field trial. Therefore, a crop rotation of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), mustard (Sinapis alba L.) as catch crop, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was set up. The tested treatments were a mixture of Cattle Slurry (CS) and Mis, a mixture of CS and Wheat Straw (CS–WS), Cattle Manure (CM) from Mis shredded bedding, CM from WS shredded bedding, a pure CS, Urea Ammonium Nitrate (UAN) and a treatment without any N applied (NoN). When the carbon-rich fertilisers (both mixtures and manures) were applied to cereals, they led to a slight N immobilisation compared to pure CS, whereas differences were mostly not significant. Furthermore, Mis fertilisers were at least as efficient as WS-based organic fertilisers in inducing a contribution of SOM build-up and in reducing inorganic N before winter and thus preventing N losses, whereas differences were mostly not significant.


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