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2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Richard P. Baron

Abstract Failure analysis is an investigative process in which the visual observations of features present on a failed component and the surrounding environment are essential in determining the root cause of a failure. This article reviews the basic photographic principles and techniques that are applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. It discusses the processes involved in visual examination, field photographic documentation, and laboratory photographic documentation of failed components. The article describes the operating principles of each part of a professional digital camera. It covers basic photographic principles and manipulation of settings that assist in producing high-quality images. The need for accurate photographic documentation in failure analysis is also presented.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Zhe Jiang ◽  
Wenchong He ◽  
Marcus Stephen Kirby ◽  
Arpan Man Sainju ◽  
Shaowen Wang ◽  

In recent years, deep learning has achieved tremendous success in image segmentation for computer vision applications. The performance of these models heavily relies on the availability of large-scale high-quality training labels (e.g., PASCAL VOC 2012). Unfortunately, such large-scale high-quality training data are often unavailable in many real-world spatial or spatiotemporal problems in earth science and remote sensing (e.g., mapping the nationwide river streams for water resource management). Although extensive efforts have been made to reduce the reliance on labeled data (e.g., semi-supervised or unsupervised learning, few-shot learning), the complex nature of geographic data such as spatial heterogeneity still requires sufficient training labels when transferring a pre-trained model from one region to another. On the other hand, it is often much easier to collect lower-quality training labels with imperfect alignment with earth imagery pixels (e.g., through interpreting coarse imagery by non-expert volunteers). However, directly training a deep neural network on imperfect labels with geometric annotation errors could significantly impact model performance. Existing research that overcomes imperfect training labels either focuses on errors in label class semantics or characterizes label location errors at the pixel level. These methods do not fully incorporate the geometric properties of label location errors in the vector representation. To fill the gap, this article proposes a weakly supervised learning framework to simultaneously update deep learning model parameters and infer hidden true vector label locations. Specifically, we model label location errors in the vector representation to partially reserve geometric properties (e.g., spatial contiguity within line segments). Evaluations on real-world datasets in the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) refinement application illustrate that the proposed framework outperforms baseline methods in classification accuracy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 179 ◽  
pp. 106116
Yubin Cao ◽  
Yanru Wang ◽  
Zuhua Zhang ◽  
Hao Wang

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-42
Ruisen Liu ◽  
Manisha Natarajan ◽  
Matthew C. Gombolay

As robots become ubiquitous in the workforce, it is essential that human-robot collaboration be both intuitive and adaptive. A robot’s ability to coordinate team activities improves based on its ability to infer and reason about the dynamic (i.e., the “learning curve”) and stochastic task performance of its human counterparts. We introduce a novel resource coordination algorithm that enables robots to schedule team activities by (1) actively characterizing the task performance of their human teammates and (2) ensuring the schedule is robust to temporal constraints given this characterization. We first validate our modeling assumptions via user study. From this user study, we create a data-driven prior distribution over human task performance for our virtual and physical evaluations of human-robot teaming. Second, we show that our methods are scalable and produce high-quality schedules. Third, we conduct a between-subjects experiment (n = 90) to assess the effects on a human-robot team of a robot scheduler actively exploring the humans’ task proficiency. Our results indicate that human-robot working alliance ( p\lt 0.001 ) and human performance ( p=0.00359 ) are maximized when the robot dedicates more time to exploring the capabilities of human teammates.

2022 ◽  
Vol 150 ◽  
pp. 106859
Pavel A. Cheremkhin ◽  
Nikolay N. Evtikhiev ◽  
Vitaly V. Krasnov ◽  
Rostislav S. Starikov ◽  
Evgenii Yu Zlokazov

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-45
Weiren Yu ◽  
Julie McCann ◽  
Chengyuan Zhang ◽  
Hakan Ferhatosmanoglu

SimRank is an attractive link-based similarity measure used in fertile fields of Web search and sociometry. However, the existing deterministic method by Kusumoto et al. [ 24 ] for retrieving SimRank does not always produce high-quality similarity results, as it fails to accurately obtain diagonal correction matrix  D . Moreover, SimRank has a “connectivity trait” problem: increasing the number of paths between a pair of nodes would decrease its similarity score. The best-known remedy, SimRank++ [ 1 ], cannot completely fix this problem, since its score would still be zero if there are no common in-neighbors between two nodes. In this article, we study fast high-quality link-based similarity search on billion-scale graphs. (1) We first devise a “varied- D ” method to accurately compute SimRank in linear memory. We also aggregate duplicate computations, which reduces the time of [ 24 ] from quadratic to linear in the number of iterations. (2) We propose a novel “cosine-based” SimRank model to circumvent the “connectivity trait” problem. (3) To substantially speed up the partial-pairs “cosine-based” SimRank search on large graphs, we devise an efficient dimensionality reduction algorithm, PSR # , with guaranteed accuracy. (4) We give mathematical insights to the semantic difference between SimRank and its variant, and correct an argument in [ 24 ] that “if D is replaced by a scaled identity matrix (1-Ɣ)I, their top-K rankings will not be affected much”. (5) We propose a novel method that can accurately convert from Li et al.  SimRank ~{S} to Jeh and Widom’s SimRank S . (6) We propose GSR # , a generalisation of our “cosine-based” SimRank model, to quantify pairwise similarities across two distinct graphs, unlike SimRank that would assess nodes across two graphs as completely dissimilar. Extensive experiments on various datasets demonstrate the superiority of our proposed approaches in terms of high search quality, computational efficiency, accuracy, and scalability on billion-edge graphs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. 101360
Iñigo Torres ◽  
Ana María Villa-Manso ◽  
Mónica Revenga-Parra ◽  
Cristina Gutiérrez-Sánchez ◽  
Diego A. Aldave ◽  

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