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2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (7) ◽  
pp. 341-358
Author(s):  
V. V. Aksarin ◽  
K. P. Korolev

The aspects of the origin, formation and development of the flax-growing industry in the Tyumen region in the ХХ century are considered. Based on the available historiographic material (articles, reports, essays, descriptions, statistical information), the authors identified the features of the formation of the industry. It is noted that the historical conditions in which the Tobolsk (Tyumen) province was located, later the region, throughout the XX century, were full of contradictions and difficulties. It is argued that, having good potential, having received an impetus for development in the middle of the last century, at present, flax growing has not become one of the most important sectors of the economy. It is shown that the publications of the Tobolsk Provincial Statistical Committee: “Reviews of the Tobolsk Governorate”, “Reviews of the Tobolsk Governorate in the Agricultural Relationship”, the works of N. L. Skalozubova — reveal the state of agricultural life of the population of the province, the research potential of the Tyumen experimental station, the advanced experience of agricultural enterprises, allow to identify the main problems and prospects for growing flax in the region. The productivity of flax in various agro-ecological zones of the region, varietal potential and the degree of its realization, taking into account climatic features over a long period, the economic feasibility of growing both fiber and oil-bearing forms are analyzed. The main stages of development of flax growing and limiting factors for the production of high-quality flax products are identified.


Author(s):  
Simon Zhai ◽  
Meltem Göksu Kandemir ◽  
Gunther Reinhart

AbstractTo harness the full potential of predictive maintenance (PdM), PdM information has to be used to optimally plan production and maintenance actions. Hence, operation-specific modelling of degradation, i.e. predictions of the health condition under time-varying operational conditions, has to be realized. By utilizing operation-specific degradation information, maintenance and production can be planned with regard to each other and thus, predictive maintenance integrated production scheduling (PdM-IPS) is enabled. This publication proposes a novel PdM-IPS approach consisting of two interacting modules: an operation-specific Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) module and an integrated production scheduling and maintenance planning (IPSMP) module. Specifically, the mathematical problem of the IPSMP module based on an extended version of the maintenance integrated flexible job shop problem is formulated. A two-stage genetic algorithm to efficiently solve this problem is designed and subsequently applied to simulated condition monitoring, as well as real industrial data. Results indicate that the approach is able to find feasible high quality PdM integrated production schedules.


Nano Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wei Wei ◽  
Jiaqi Pan ◽  
Haiping Lin ◽  
Chanan Euaruksakul ◽  
Zhiyun Li ◽  
...  

AbstractThe synthesis of high-quality ultrathin overlayers is critically dependent on the surface structure of substrates, especially involving the overlayer-substrate interaction. By using in situ surface measurements, we demonstrate that the overlayer-substrate interaction can be tuned by doping near-surface Ar nanobubbles. The interfacial coupling strength significantly decreases with near-surface Ar nanobubbles, accompanying by an “anisotropic to isotropic” growth transformation. On the substrate containing near-surface Ar, the growth front crosses entire surface atomic steps in both uphill and downhill directions with no difference, and thus, the morphology of the two-dimensional (2D) overlayer exhibits a round-shape. Especially, the round-shaped 2D overlayers coalesce seamlessly with a growth acceleration in the approaching direction, which is barely observed in the synthesis of 2D materials. This can be attributed to the immigration lifetime and diffusion rate of growth species, which depends on the overlayer-substrate interaction and the surface catalysis. Furthermore, the “round to hexagon” morphological transition is achieved by etching-regrowth, revealing the inherent growth kinetics under quasi-freestanding conditions. These findings provide a novel promising way to modulate the growth, coalescence, and etching dynamics of 2D materials on solid surfaces by adjusting the strength of overlayer-substrate interaction, which contributes to optimization of large-scale production of 2D material crystals.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Qingyou Zheng ◽  
Wenxing Chen ◽  
Man Luo ◽  
Liqing Xu ◽  
Qinglin Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are important plant secondary metabolites that confer flavor, nutritional value, and resistance to pathogens. Persimmon is one of the PA richest crops. Mature fruits can be inedible because of the astringency caused by high PA levels and need to go through a de-astringency treatment before consumption. The molecular basis for PA accumulation is poorly known, particularly transcriptional regulators. We characterised three genotypes (‘Luotiantianshi’ (LT), ‘Mopanshi’ (MP), and ‘Youhou’ (YH)) with different PA accumulation patterns using an approach that combined PacBio full-length sequencing and Illumina-based RNA sequencing to build high-quality full-length transcriptomes. Additionally, we analysed transcriptome dynamics of the three genotypes (LT, MP, and YH) at four key fruit developmental stages. Results A total of 96,463 transcripts were obtained. We identified 80,075 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), 71,137 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 27,845 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), principal component analysis (PCA), and differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) analyses indicated that the four different developmental stages within a genotype exhibited similar transcriptome activities. A total of 2,164 transcripts specific to each fruit developmental stage were detected. The transcripts specific to early stages were attributed to phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. Co-expression network analyses revealed MEbrown and MEblue modules were strongly associated to PA accumulation. From these two modules, 20 hub TFs are potential regulators for PA accumulation. Among them, Cluster_78388 (SBP protein), Cluster_63454 (bZIP protein), and Cluster_66595 (MYB protein) appear to involve in the PA biosynthesis in Chinese genotypes. Conclusions This is the first high-quality reference transcriptome for commercial persimmon. Our work provides insights into the molecular pathways underlying PA accumulation and enhances our global understanding of transcriptome dynamics throughout fruit development.


Author(s):  
Teodoro Lasanta ◽  
Carlos Baroja-Sáenz ◽  
Melani Cortijos-López ◽  
Estela Nadal-Romero ◽  
Ignacio Martín ◽  
...  

Climate change is promoting increasingly hot and dry conditions in the vineyards of the Mediterranean basin, affecting both the physiology and phenology of the vine, as well as the production and quality of the grape. In this context, adaptation and mitigation measurements against climate change are necessary to maintain high quality wines and varietal typicity, as well as to respond to market demands. The objective of this study is to show adaptation strategies that are being carried out or considered by winegrowers of the Denomination of Origin Qualified Rioja (DOCa Rioja). Among the strategies, the following should be highlighted: changes in the location of the vineyard, either towards areas with irrigation possibilities and very fertile soils (mainly low terraces), or towards higher altitude areas (mainly high glacis), thus trying to avoid the effects of water stress and increased temperatures; and (ii) modifications in the strain conduction system, often replacing the vessel conduction with the trellis conduction, in order to match a greater degree of mechanization of the agronomic tasks and the improvement of the improvement of the vine’s microclimate, especially in the new plantations in very fertile soils. These strategies will be increasingly relevant, taking into account the foreseeable increase in temperatures and droughts in the future climate scenarios. However, the question arises as to whether these strategies will be sufficient or whether it will be necessary to eliminate current restrictions imposed by DOCa Rioja, such as expanding the vineyard in mountain areas or introducing new varieties.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Arno Meiler ◽  
Fabio Marchiano ◽  
Margaux Haering ◽  
Manuela Weitkunat ◽  
Frank Schnorrer ◽  
...  

AbstractGene expression regulation requires precise transcriptional programs, led by transcription factors in combination with epigenetic events. Recent advances in epigenomic and transcriptomic techniques provided insight into different gene regulation mechanisms. However, to date it remains challenging to understand how combinations of transcription factors together with epigenetic events control cell-type specific gene expression. We have developed the AnnoMiner web-server, an innovative and flexible tool to annotate and integrate epigenetic, and transcription factor occupancy data. First, AnnoMiner annotates user-provided peaks with gene features. Second, AnnoMiner can integrate genome binding data from two different transcriptional regulators together with gene features. Third, AnnoMiner offers to explore the transcriptional deregulation of genes nearby, or within a specified genomic region surrounding a user-provided peak. AnnoMiner’s fourth function performs transcription factor or histone modification enrichment analysis for user-provided gene lists by utilizing hundreds of public, high-quality datasets from ENCODE for the model organisms human, mouse, Drosophila and C. elegans. Thus, AnnoMiner can predict transcriptional regulators for a studied process without the strict need for chromatin data from the same process. We compared AnnoMiner to existing tools and experimentally validated several transcriptional regulators predicted by AnnoMiner to indeed contribute to muscle morphogenesis in Drosophila. AnnoMiner is freely available at http://chimborazo.ibdm.univ-mrs.fr/AnnoMiner/.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0249160
Author(s):  
Sean M. Campbell ◽  
Steven L. Anderson ◽  
Zachary T. Brym ◽  
Brian J. Pearson

To support the rapidly expanding industrial hemp industry, a commercial supply of high-quality starter plants with low genetic variability from nurseries will be key to consistent and efficient cultivation efforts. Rooting success was evaluated across four propagation medias, five rooting hormones, and eight commercially available high-cannabidiol (CBD) essential oil hemp cultivars. Cuttings were placed in a climate-controlled room and assessed for rooting success 12 days after cloning. Rooting success was determined by quantifying total root number, cumulative total root length, and total root mass. Propagation media had the greatest effect on rooting success (13–80%). Rockwool had the highest rooting success resulting in 10-fold increases in rooting traits over the next highest scoring medium (Berger BM6). Hormone applications significantly improved (15- to 18-fold) rooting success compared to no hormone application, while non-statistical differences were observed across auxin hormone concentrations and application methods. Genetic variation in rooting response was observed between cultivars with ‘Cherry Wine’ outperforming all other cultivars with an approximate 20% increase in rooting success over the next highest rooting cultivar, ‘Wife’. Although the ideal combination was not specifically identified in this study, findings provide insight into how rooting hormone application and medium selection impact vegetative propagule rooting success of essential oil hemp.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
François B. Lanoë ◽  
M. Nieves Zedeño ◽  
Anna M. Jansson ◽  
Vance T. Holliday ◽  
Joshua D. Reuther

Abstract The Northern Rocky Mountain Front (hereafter Northern Front) is a prominent geographic feature in archaeological models of human dispersal in the terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene of North America. Testing those models has been arduous because of local geomorphological factors that tend to obliterate or otherwise limit access to archaeological finds of relevant age. In this paper, we present well-stratified archaeological and environmental records dating back to 14,000–13,000 cal yr BP from the site of Billy Big Spring (Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana), located on a glacial kettle, a type of landform that has been largely ignored by regional archaeological research to date. Findings from Billy Big Spring show the continuous use of the Northern Front foothills throughout the major climatic and environmental disturbances of the Early Holocene, and possibly the terminal Pleistocene as well. As such, Billy Big Spring contributes to refining several archaeological models of early settlement of the Northern Front, particularly those that posit differential use of foothills versus plains settings during the midst of the Holocene Thermal Maximum. The record at Billy Big Spring also suggests that kettles, regardless of physiographic setting, provide a yet unsuspected and unsampled potential for preserving high-quality and easily accessible early archaeological and paleoenvironmental records.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0255520
Author(s):  
Donglin Hu ◽  
He Zhang ◽  
Yingshuang Sun ◽  
Yongqin Li

Background The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has greatly changed people’s daily lives, forcing countries to take actions, such as school shutdown, lockdown, isolation, and social distancing measures. It remains unclear how the closures, cancellations, and restrictions of schools and courses as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic affect the engagement of school-aged children and adolescents in relation to physical activity (PA). Methods The articles in the databases of EBSCO (including AMED, CINAHL Plus, Health Business, Health Source MEDLINE with Full Text, APA PsycArticles, APA PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus) published during the period from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020 will be retrieved, and the data in the selected articles are extracted, including research methods, demographics, and key results. Search outcomes were reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) will be used to evaluate research quality. Two reviewers are responsible for completing the three tasks, namely selecting the articles that meet the inclusion criteria, extracting data in the articles selected, and evaluating their research quality. All findings, and especially primary outcomes will be summarized in a table format of findings. The results will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence for researchers in this subject area. Aim The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on PA in children and adolescents aged 6–17 years during 2020. 1). What impact has the COVID-19 pandemic had on PA levels in school-aged children and adolescents? 2). Investigating changes in the locations of school-aged children’s and adolescents’ PA between the pre-COVID-19 period (January 2020) and the COVID-19 period (December 2020). Results We hope that this study will provide government authorities and health professionals with the necessary information in guiding actions and allocating resources, so that the situation of physical inactivity in school-aged children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic can be improved, thereby enhancing their physical health. Protocol registration number This review was submitted and registered under CRD42020225976 in PROSPERO.


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