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2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 402-409
Author(s):  
Dian W. Kurniawidi ◽  
Teguh Ardianto ◽  
Syamsuddin ◽  
Siti Alaa' ◽  
Amrul Ikhsan ◽  
...  

Sampah plastik merupakan salah satu masalah serius di seluruh wilayah di Indonesia, apalagi pulau Lombok karena gugus pulau yang kecil. Dari berbagai jenis sampah, sampah plastik merupakan sampah non-organik yang paling banyak dihasilkan dan memiliki berbagai dampak bagi kesehatan dan lingkungan. Usaha mengurangi sampah dengan membuat Tempat Pembuangan Akhir, Tempat Pembuangan Sampah, dan Bank Sampah nampaknya perlu didukung oleh kesadaran masyarakat untuk mengurangi penggunaan sampah dan memilah sampah sehingga dapat mengurangi beban pengelolaan sampah yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah daerah. Pada kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat kali ini dilakukan kegiatan pembimbingan, praktek lapangan dan sosialisasi kepada masyarakat ilmiah, mahasiswa dan alumni program studi pendidikan Fisika di Pusat Daur Ulang Bajang Peripih Doro di dusun Murbaya Desa Pringgarata Lombok Tengah yang telah melakukan kegiatan dengan hasil yaitu pembuatan paving block dari limbah plastik, pembuatan biofuel dari sampah plastik serta pembuatan batako. Limbah plastik yang digunakan didapatkan dari tempat pembuangan sampah masyarakat setempat, dengan memilih jenis limbah plastik low density polyethylene (LDPE), PET (polyethylene terepthalete), dan HDPE (high density polyethylene). Plastik jenis ini biasanya digunakan untuk membuat kantong plastik, plastik lembaran, bungkus makanan ringan, bungkus roti maupun kemasan-kemasan sejenisnya. Pembelajaran yang diperoleh menghasilkan uji coba sampel dengan nilai kuat tekan pada campuran limbah plastik 75% sebesar 8,2 MPa, dan penyerapan air sebesar 0,3109%. Sedangkan untuk pengujian bahan bakar diperoleh bahan bakar yang massa jenisnya 0,708 g/ml. Kelemahannya bahan bakar ini tidak ditemukannya senyawa oksigen yang dapat menyebabkan korosi pada mesin. Sehingga alternatif penggunaannya adalah pada industri pembakaran batu bata atau industri pengeringan tembakau.


2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ji Heui Kim ◽  
Jung Yeon Jang ◽  
Yong Ju Jang

Abstract Background Different species of human rhinovirus (HRV) can induce varied antiviral and inflammatory responses in human blood macrophages and lower airway epithelium. Although human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) are a primary infection route of HRV, differences between major and minor groups of HRV in the upper airway epithelium have not been studied in detail. In this study, we investigated viral replications and immune responses of major and minor groups of HRV in the HNECs. Methods Viral replication, immune responses of IFN-β, IFN-λ, proinflammatory cytokines, and viral receptors, and mRNA expression of transcription factors of HRV16 (major group) and HRV1B (minor group) in the HNECs were assessed. Results Compared with HRV16, HRV1B replicated more actively without excessive cell death and produced higher IFN-β, IFN-λ1/3, CXCL10, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18 levels. Furthermore, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), TLR3, MDA5, NF-κB, STAT1, and STAT2 mRNA levels increased in HRV1B-infected HNECs. Conclusion HRV1B induces a stronger antiviral and inflammatory response from cell entry to downstream signaling compared with HRV16.


2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Moyosore Joseph Adegbeye ◽  
Oluwatosin Bode Omotoso ◽  
Adebowale Noah Fajemisin ◽  
Samuel Olanrewaju Aro ◽  
Damilola Deborah Obadare ◽  
...  

Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of time of feeding on the performance of WAD goats during pregnancy, and to assess how the time of feeding of the dam affect the growth of their kids’ postpartum. Twelve (12) pregnant does were used in the pre-partum and in the postpartum, the same 12 lactating does and their 12 kids (1 kid per doe) were used. The dams were randomly distributed into three treatments and were fed once daily either in the morning, noon, or evening at 0600 h, 12:00 h and 18:00 h respectively under the natural light–dark cycle. Result Serum creatinine in noon-fed does was higher (P = 0.005) than in morning and evening-fed does. In addition, low density lipoprotein in morning-fed gravid does was the high (P = 0.007) compared to noon-fed does while the evening-fed does had the lowest. During postpartum, morning and noon-fed dams consumed more feed (forage, concentrate, and total daily feed intake) than evening-fed dams (P ≤ 0.006). Kid weight of morning-fed does was numerically higher than noon-fed does, which was higher than kids of evening-fed does. Conclusion This study shows that time of feeding did not affect the performance of pregnant WAD goats. However, it has the potential to influence the serum parameters of pregnant animals. It also showed that time of feeding influences maternal feed intake postpartum and can influence the growth of the kids.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (12) ◽  
Author(s):  
Baranivignesh Prakash ◽  
Jarmo Kouko ◽  
Veli-Matti Luukkainen ◽  
Ari Jäsberg ◽  
Antti I. Koponen

AbstractMixing tanks are employed in paper and pulp industries to generate aqueous foams and fiber foams. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of impeller geometry on dynamic foam generation in a 60 L mixing tank. Three impeller geometries including two radial—Rushton turbine (RT), Bakker turbine (BT6), one axial high solidity pitched blade turbine (HSPBT), and four dual impeller combinations were investigated. Compressed air, water and sodium dodecyl sulphate were used as gas phase, liquid phase and surfactant, respectively, to generate aqueous foam. 1% mass consistency softwood fiber was used to generate fiber foam. The change in aqueous foam density for any given impeller was limited to ± 40 kg/m3 indicating foam density was dictated by impeller type rather than power input. Single impellers generated bubbly liquids whereas dual impellers generated low-density aqueous foams. Besides, stable foam was produced even at low power input compared to single impellers due to increase in impeller swept volume and blade contact area. Addition of fibers increased the foam density by ~ 100–150 kg/m3 and reduced the half-life time by almost threefold for all impellers due to lower air content and higher bubble size. Placement of high shear impeller (BT6) at bottom and down-pumping axial impeller (HSPBT) on top generated fine bubbles.


Author(s):  
Abdulrahman Bin Jumah ◽  
Maryam Malekshahian ◽  
Aleksander A. Tedstone ◽  
Arthur A. Garforth

Author(s):  
Apinya Michuea ◽  
Somsak Fongsupa ◽  
Thaval Rerksngarm ◽  
Sudawadee Kongkhum

Background: Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), whose pathogenesis involves vascular endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, a specific marker of endothelial dysfunction, serum E-selectin, was assessed in Thai hyperlipidemia adults.Methods: Subjects who had no history of hypertension, diabetes and other serious illness were recruited and classified as normolipidemia (n=100) and hyperlipidemia (n=100), by using the levels of blood lipids (hyperlipidemia: total cholesterol >200 mg/dl, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >130 mg/dl, and triglyceride >150 mg/dl). Clinical data were collected, and laboratory analysis was done. Serum levels of uric acid, fasting blood glucose (FBS), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine were measured by the dry chemistry automate analyzer. Serum E-selectin was measured by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: The hyperlipidemia subjects had significantly higher serum E-selectin levels than the normolipidemia subjects (18.98±11.58.56 versus 8.85±4.02 ng/ml). E-selectin was significantly correlated with blood lipids; total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, and HDL-C (r=0.477, 0.441, 0.453, and -0.191, respectively). Moreover, significant correlations of E-selectin with uric acid and fasting blood glucose were also found (r=0.155 and 0.166, respectively).Conclusions: Serum E-selectin levels increased in hyperlipidemia and correlated with uric acid and fasting blood glucose, reflecting the association between hyperlipidemia and pathogenesis of CVD, Therefore, it emphasizes the importance of hyperlipidemia management. 


Author(s):  
Muhammad Musaddique Ali Rafique

NASA/ESA/CSA joint venture James Webb Space Telescope is about to be launched. It is hypothesized to operate in near-infrared range. It is also hypothesized to unveil early star formation, galaxies, and universe due to its orbit, point in orbit and orbital motion. It has been under manufacturing for over 20 years at a staggering cost of 10 billion US dollars (most expensive scientific experiment in history). Beryllium (Be) is chosen to be element for construction of its main mirrors due to its high stiffness, low density, low linear coefficient of thermal expansion (α) in cryogenics and high thermal conductivity. It is followed by gold (Au) layer deposition on its (Be) surface to enhance its sensitivity towards infrared radiation as later is hypothesized to bear superior properties. However, serious mistakes have been made in selecting this material for this application. Owing to its crystal structure (hexagonal close packed (hcp)), slip planes (basal, prismatic and pyramidal) and mechanisms of their activation, Be necessitates easy fracture at cryogenic temperature. It has anisotropic properties and prone to transverse fracture under tensile loading. Furthermore, its ductile to brittle transition temperature is very low making it entirely unsuitable for such an application. It is one of most expensive metals on planet. This study constitutes revisiting these fundamental properties and mechanisms which were entirely ignored during materials selection thus rendering whole project useless.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Samuel Chijioke Attama ◽  
Patrick Emeka Aba ◽  
Chinwe Uchechukwu Asuzu ◽  
Isaac Uzoma Asuzu

Abstract Background Vernonia amygdalina is a bitter culinary vegetable known to possess anti-diabetic principle. Baccharoides tenoreana belonging to the same species as V. amygdalina, is also used in cooking soup and it is comparatively non-bitter. However, its glycemic properties have not been studied. This study becomes imperative to find out if B. tenoreana possesses hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties and how it compares with V. amygdalina. Should B. tenoreana be better than V. amygdalina, it should be preferable since it is non-bitter and can comfortably be taken compared to V. amygdalina. This study investigated the comparative hypoglycemic and antioxidant potentials of V. amygdalina (VA) and B. tenoreana (BT). Methods Thirty male Albino wistar rats assigned into six groups of five rats per group were used for the study. Diabetes was induced in groups B-F rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at 160 mg/kg. Groups C-E rats were treated with VA (200 mg/kg), BT (200 mg/kg) and combination of VA & BT (100 mg/kg each) respectively. Group F rats were administered glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) whereas groups A and B rats were given distilled water. All treatments were through the oral administration, once daily for 21 consecutive days. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were determined after 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days while lipid profile, in vivo antioxidant and pancreatic histomorphology were assessed on day 21 post-treatment. Results The VA-treated rats recorded marginally reduced FBG, malondialdehyde and low-density lipoprotein levels when compared to the counterpart treated with BT. The high-density lipoprotein values were significantly higher in VA-treated rats than in BT-treated rats. The histomorphology of the pancreas of VA-treated rats expressed more islet cells compared to the counterpart treated with VT. Conclusion Both VA and BT exhibited hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities with varying potencies.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Bruno Varella Miranda ◽  
Brent Ross ◽  
Jason Franken ◽  
Miguel Gómez

PurposeThe purpose of this study is to disentangle the drivers of adoption of procurement strategies in situations where small agri-food firms deal with constrained organizational choices. More specifically, the authors investigate the role of transaction costs, capabilities and networks in the definition of feasible “make-or-buy” choices in emerging wine regions.Design/methodology/approachThis article analyzes a unique dataset of small wineries from five US states: Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, New York and Vermont. The reported results derive from both a hurdle model (i.e. a probit model and a truncated regression model) and a tobit model.FindingsThe results suggest the importance of trust as a replacement for formal governance structures whenever small firms deal with highly constrained sets of organizational choices. On the other hand, the level of dependence on a limited mix of winegrape varieties and the perception that these varieties are fundamental in building legitimacy help to explain higher rates of vertical integration.Originality/valueThis study is important because it sheds light on organizational constraints that affect millions of farmers across the globe. The study of “make-or-buy” decisions in agri-food supply chains has mostly relied on the implicit assumption that all organizational choices are available to every firm. Nevertheless, limited capabilities and the participation in low-density networks may constrain the ability of a firm to adopt a governance mechanism. Stated organizational preferences and actual organizational choices may thus differ.


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