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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. M. Mousa ◽  
M. E. Taha ◽  
SH. M. ELdeighdye ◽  
A. M. Kamal

Abstract Consuming a high-fat diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver, which may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet. Different reports dealt with the role of purslane as an extract against high-fat diet; meanwhile, it was necessary to study the potential role of fresh purslane as a hypolipidemic agent. This study is supposed to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypolipidemic effect of fresh purslane, by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr). Rats were divided into two main groups: the first one is the normal control group (n=7 rats) and the second group (n=28 rats) received a high fat diet for 28 weeks to induce obesity. Then the high fat diet group was divided into equal four subgroups. As, the positive control group still fed on a high fat diet only. Meanwhile, the other three groups were received high-fat diet supplemented with a different percent of fresh purslane (25, 50 and 75%) respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for molecular, biochemical, and histological studies. Current study reported that, supplementation of fresh purslane especially at a concentration of 75% play an important role against harmful effects of high-fat diet at both cellular and organ level, by increasing CYP7A1 as well as Ldlr mRNA expression. Also, there were an improvement on the tested liver functions, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile. Fresh purslane plays the potential role as a hypolipidemic agent via modulation of both Ldlr and Cyp7A, which will point to use fresh purslane against harmful effects of obesity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fei Zha ◽  
Jingjing Zhao ◽  
Cheng Chen ◽  
Xiaoqi Ji ◽  
Meng Li ◽  
...  

ObjectivePoststroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is a serious complication of stroke. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of peripheral inflammation. The relationship between the NLR and PSCI is far from well studied, and the thesis of this study was to assess the predictive value of the NLR in patients with PSCI, and establish and verify the corresponding prediction model based on this relationship.MethodsA total of 367 stroke patients were included in this study. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and NLRs were measured at baseline, and clinical and neuropsychological assessments were conducted 3 months after stroke. The National Institutes of Health Scale (NIHSS) was used to assess the severity of stroke. A Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used for the assessment of cognitive function.ResultsAfter three months of follow-up, 87 (23.7%) patients were diagnosed with PSCI. The NLR was significantly higher in PSCI patients than in non-PSCI patients (P < 0.001). Patient age, sex, body mass index, NIHSS scores, and high-density lipoprotein levels also differed in the univariate analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, the NLR was an independent risk factor associated with the patients with PSCI after adjustment for potential confounders (OR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.21–2.29, P = 0.002). The nomogram based on patient sex, age, NIHSS score, and NLR had good predictive power with an AUC of 0.807. In the validation group, the AUC was 0.816.ConclusionAn increased NLR at admission is associated with PSCI, and the model built with NLR as one of the predictors can increase prognostic information for the early detection of PSCI.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Momoko Matsuyama ◽  
Keiji Hirai ◽  
Hiroaki Nonaka ◽  
Moeka Ueda ◽  
Junki Morino ◽  
...  

Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of elobixibat on constipation and lipid metabolism; and determine the factors associated with the effect of elobixibat on constipation in patients with moderate to end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD).Methods:Stool frequency and serum lipid parameters were retrospectively analyzed before and after 4 weeks of elobixibat administration in 42 patients (CKD stage G3, 6; stage G4, 9; stage G5, 9; stage G5D, 18). Relationships between the change in stool frequency after initiation of elobixibat and various clinical parameters were analyzed by using linear regression analysis.Results:Elobixibat increased stool frequency from 0.5 ± 0.4 per day to 1.1 ± 0.6 per day (p < 0.001) regardless of whether patients were undergoing dialysis, on concomitant laxatives, or were administered elobixibat before or after breakfast. Elobixibat reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (from 90.9 ± 37.2 mg/dL to 77.5 ± 34.8 mg/dL, p < 0.05) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (from 44.9 ± 14.3 mg/dL to 57.0 ± 25.8 mg/dL, p < 0.05), but did not change triglyceride concentration. Adverse effects were observed in two patients (nausea and diarrhea). Only phosphate concentration was correlated with the change in stool frequency after initiation of elobixibat (standard coefficient = 0.321, p = 0.043).Conclusions:Elobixibat improved constipation and lipid metabolism in patients with moderate to end-stage CKD, without serious adverse events.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tao He ◽  
Xu Li ◽  
Jiayuan Li ◽  
Zhu Wang ◽  
Yuan Fan ◽  
...  

BackgroundThe aim of this study was to investigate the status of serum lipids during endocrine therapy.MethodsWe retrospectively analysed lipid profiles during the 5-year treatment of 1487 consecutive postoperative BC patients. Lipid parameters included triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C). Those biomarkers were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years following the initiation of endocrine therapy.ResultsFor premenopausal BC patients, LDL levels rapidly decreased at 1 year in the tamoxifen (TAM) group compared with baseline levels (p<0.05), and this decline remained for the following 4 years. Additionally, LDL levels were significantly lower in the TAM group than in the nonendocrine group at all assessment time points (p<0.05). Similarly, TC levels also decreased in the TAM group compared with baseline levels at all assessment time points (p<0.05), and compared with the levels in the nonendocrine group, TC levels were also lower for the first 4 years. For postmenopausal BC patients, there was no significant difference in the lipid profiles (TG, TC, LDL and HDL) in the letrozole (LET), anastrozole (ANA) or exemestane (EXE) groups compared with the nonendocrine group. For patients who received TAM, compared with the nonendocrine group, TC levels decreased at 1 year, and LDL levels decreased at 1 and 2 years.ConclusionsTAM may improve LDL and TC levels in premenopausal BC patients. In postmenopausal BC patients, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) may have no adverse effects on lipid profiles, and TAM may have limited beneficial effects on serum lipids.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Salime Chedid Lisboa ◽  
Alexandra Vieira ◽  
Juliana Lopes Teodoro ◽  
Rochelle Costa ◽  
Franccesco Pinto Boeno ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In the literature, professions that impose body standards for daily performance are designated as non-conventional professions (i.e. models, athletes, ballet dancers), with great emphasis on the female population. More than a job, it becomes a lifestyle to those inserted in this environment, thus, thousands of children and adolescents seek inclusion and success in these professions due to financial and media gains. Such professions are associated with several health-related risk factors. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare among physical fitness levels, cardiometabolic health markers, mental health and dietary habits in non-conventional professions. Methods The sample consisted of 41 female individuals aged between 14 and 24 years, allocated into four groups, control group composed by university students (UG = 11), models (MG = 11), ballet dancers (BG = 11), and athletes’ group (AG = 8). Physical fitness outcomes (cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, maximal dynamic strength, muscular endurance and body composition); biochemical outcomes (high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], total cholesterol [TC], fasting glucose [FG], fasting insulin [FI], C-reactive protein [CRP]), diet quality and mental health were evaluated. Results No impairments were observed in the health markers evaluated among groups, both for health-related physical fitness and biochemical outcomes. However, low levels of bone mineral density (BMD) were observed. Even with statistically significant differences between the groups for chronological age (p = 0.002), menarche (p = 0.004), career length (p = 0.001), height (p = 0.001), body mass index (p = 0.018), waist-to-height ratio (p < 0.001), %Fat (p = 0.020), VO2peak (p = 0.020), maximal dynamic strength of knee extensors (p = 0.031) and elbow flexors (p = 0,001) and flexibility (p < 0.001), all these values are within the normal range for health. Conclusion The professions analyzed do not seem to interfere in the physical fitness and cardiometabolic health of the girls assessed. However, we identified that exposure to these profession can impair mental health (depressive symptoms in 100% of participants) and body composition (BMD 63% of participants).


Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 205
Author(s):  
Di Wu ◽  
Mingjuan Gu ◽  
Zhuying Wei ◽  
Chunling Bai ◽  
Guanghua Su ◽  
...  

Myostatin (MSTN) is a major negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass and causes a variety of metabolic changes. However, the effect of MSTN knockout on bile acid metabolism has rarely been reported. In this study, the physiological and biochemical alterations of serum in MSTN+/− and wild type (WT) cattle were investigated. There were no significant changes in liver and kidney biochemical indexes. However, compared with the WT cattle, lactate dehydrogenase, total bile acid (TBA), cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the MSTN+/− cattle were significantly increased, and glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides (TG) were significantly decreased, indicating that MSTN knockout affected glucose and lipid metabolism and total bile acids content. Targeted metabolomic analysis of the bile acids and their derivatives was performed on serum samples and found that bile acids were significantly increased in the MSTN+/− cattle compared with the WT cattle. As the only bile acid synthesis organ in the body, we performed metabolomic analysis on the liver to study the effect of MSTN knockout on hepatic metabolism. Metabolic pathway enrichment analysis of differential metabolites showed significant enrichment of the primary bile acid biosynthesis and bile secretion pathway in the MSTN+/− cattle. Targeted metabolomics data further showed that MSTN knockout significantly increased bile acid content in the liver, which may have resulted from enhanced bile acid synthesis due to the expression of bile acid synthesis genes, cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1), and upregulation in the liver of the MSTN+/− cattle. These results indicate that MSTN knockout does not adversely affect bovine fitness but regulates bile acid metabolism via enhanced bile acid synthesis. This further suggests a role of MSTN in regulating metabolism.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Author(s):  
Guoli Lin ◽  
Wen Chen ◽  
Caizhi Dai ◽  
Kaizu Xu

Objective. To analyze apolipoprotein-A for its predictive value for long-term death in individuals suffering from acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction following percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods. We selected patients suffering from acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent emergency PCI at the Affiliated Hospital of Putian University from January 2017 to August 2019. The patients were divided into a high-Apo-A group and low-Apo-A group, and we observed all-cause deaths of patients in the 2 groups within 2 years. Results. The ROC curve analysis indicated the best critical value for predicting 2-year mortality as 0.8150 (area under the curve was 0.626, sensitivity 75.1%, and specificity 51.9%). There was no statistical difference among the two groups in gender, age, lesion vessel, and comorbidities. The two groups had statistically significant differences in apolipoprotein-B/A, high-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein-A, and hypersensitivity C-reactive protein. Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between apolipoprotein-A and hypersensitive C-reactive protein. The results of the 24-month analysis indicated the incidence of all-cause mortality as higher in the low-Apo-A group, and Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed the same trend. Conclusion. Apolipoprotein-A can predict the potential for long-term mortality among individuals having acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nikki L. Raftopulos ◽  
Tinashe C. Washaya ◽  
Andreas Niederprüm ◽  
Antonia Egert ◽  
Mariam F. Hakeem-Sanni ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Prostate cancer growth is driven by androgen receptor signaling, and advanced disease is initially treatable by depleting circulating androgens. However, prostate cancer cells inevitably adapt, resulting in disease relapse with incurable castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy has many side effects, including hypercholesterolemia, and more aggressive and castrate-resistant prostate cancers typically feature cellular accumulation of cholesterol stored in the form of cholesteryl esters. As cholesterol is a key substrate for de novo steroidogenesis in prostate cells, this study hypothesized that castrate-resistant/advanced prostate cancer cell growth is influenced by the availability of extracellular, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived, cholesterol, which is coupled to intracellular cholesteryl ester homeostasis. Methods C4-2B and PC3 prostate cancer cells were cultured in media supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS), charcoal-stripped FCS (CS-FCS), lipoprotein-deficient FCS (LPDS), or charcoal-stripped LPDS (CS-LPDS) and analyzed by a variety of biochemical techniques. Cell viability and proliferation were measured by MTT assay and Incucyte, respectively. Results Reducing lipoprotein availability led to a reduction in cholesteryl ester levels and cell growth in C4-2B and PC3 cells, with concomitant reductions in PI3K/mTOR and p38MAPK signaling. This reduced growth in LPDS-containing media was fully recovered by supplementation of exogenous low-density lipoprotein (LDL), but LDL only partially rescued growth of cells cultured with CS-LPDS. This growth pattern was not associated with changes in androgen receptor signaling but rather increased p38MAPK and MEK1/ERK/MSK1 activation. The ability of LDL supplementation to rescue cell growth required cholesterol esterification as well as cholesteryl ester hydrolysis activity. Further, growth of cells cultured in low androgen levels (CS-FCS) was suppressed when cholesteryl ester hydrolysis was inhibited. Conclusions Overall, these studies demonstrate that androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth can be influenced by extracellular lipid levels and LDL-cholesterol availability and that uptake of extracellular cholesterol, through endocytosis of LDL-derived cholesterol and subsequent delivery and storage in the lipid droplet as cholesteryl esters, is required to support prostate cancer cell growth. This provides new insights into the relationship between extracellular cholesterol, intracellular cholesterol metabolism, and prostate cancer cell growth and the potential mechanisms linking hypercholesterolemia and more aggressive prostate cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 253-259
Author(s):  
Juby Sara Koshy ◽  
Afsheen Raza

The clinical laboratory in today’s world is a rapidly evolving field which faces a constant pressure to produce quick and reliable results. Sigma metric is a new tool which helps to reduce process variability, quantitate the approximate number of analytical errors, and evaluate and guide for better quality control (QC) practices.To analyze sigma metrics of 16 biochemistry analytes using ERBA XL 200 Biochemistry analyzer, interpret parameter performance, compare analyzer performance with other Middle East studies and modify existing QC practices.This study was undertaken at a clinical laboratory for a period of 12 months from January to December 2020 for the following analytes: albumin (ALB), alanine amino transferase (SGPT), aspartate amino transferase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), bilirubin total (BIL T), bilirubin direct (BIL D), calcium (CAL), cholesterol (CHOL), creatinine (CREAT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), glucose (GLUC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), total protein (PROT), uric acid (UA) and urea. The Coefficient of variance (CV%) and Bias % were calculated from internal quality control (IQC) and external quality assurance scheme (EQAS) records respectively. Total allowable error (TEa) was obtained using guidelines Clinical Laboratories Improvement Act guidelines (CLIA). Sigma metrics was calculated using CV%, Bias% and TEa for the above parameters. It was found that 5 analytes in level 1 and 8 analytes in level 2 had greater than 6 sigma performance indicating world class quality. Cholesterol, glucose (level 1 and 2) and creatinine level 1 showed &#62;4 sigma performance i.e acceptable performance. Urea (both levels) and GGT (level 1) showed &#60;3 sigma and were therefore identified as the problem analytes. Sigma metrics helps to assess analytic methodologies and can serve as an important self assessment tool for quality assurance in the clinical laboratory. Sigma metric evaluation in this study helped to evaluate the quality of several analytes and also categorize them from high performing to problematic analytes, indicating the utility of this tool. In conclusion, parameters showing lesser than 3 sigma need strict monitoring and modification of quality control procedure with change in method if necessary.


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