Density Lipoprotein
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Ying-Wen Wang ◽  
Wei-Ping Lee ◽  
Yi-Hsiang Huang ◽  
Ming-Chih Hou ◽  
Keng-Hsin Lan

Abstract Background Previous studies reported worsened lipid profiles in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based DAAs on changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in HCV patients. Methods A systematic review of articles published before 31 May 2021 was conducted by searching MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and CINAHL Plus. Eligible studies were those comparing SOF-based DAAs and non-SOF DAAs for HCV patients and providing numerical data for changes in LDL. Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies- of Interventions was used for assessing risk of bias, and meta-analysis was performed for changes in LDL. Results Six studies comprising 1248 patients were included, 848 patients treated with SOF-based DAAs and 400 patients with non-SOF DAAs vs. SOF-based DAAs group had significantly greater increases in LDL from baseline to week 4 than non-SOF DAAs group (P = 0.001). However, changes in LDL from baseline to the end of treatment (P = 0.060), to post-treatment week 12 (P = 0.263), and to post-treatment week 24 (P = 0.319) did not significantly differ between the two groups. Further comparison of SOF/ledipasvir with asunaprevir/daclatasvir revealed a similar trend in changes in LDL. Conclusions For HCV patients, SOF-based DAA regimens were associated with rapid and significant increases in LDL during the initial 4 weeks of treatment, and the changes did not sustain after the end of treatment. Potential mechanism might be related to the phosphoramidate side chain of SOF.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yanbo Feng ◽  
Han Li ◽  
Cong Chen ◽  
Hao Lin ◽  
Guangyu Xu ◽  

The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotection of Schisandra chinensis Caulis polysaccharides (SCPs) in the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. A total of 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group (CON), model group (MOD), and Schisandra chinensis caulis polysaccharide (SCP) group. Except for those in the CON group, the other rats were fed with high-fat diet for 4 weeks to establish an NAFLD model. From the 5th week, rats in the SCP group were given SCP solution (100 mg kg−1) by gavage for 6 weeks, and those in the CON and MOD groups were given an equal volume of distilled water in the same way. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in serum, the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the liver tissue were detected. The small molecular metabolites in the blood of rats were determined by the metabolomics method of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS/MS) combined with multivariate analysis. The enrichment analysis and pathway analysis of the different metabolites were carried out. The therapeutic mechanism of SCP in NAFLD rats was verified by western blot. The results showed that the levels of AST, ALT, TG, TC, and LDL-C in the serum of rats in the SCP group were significantly lower, and the levels of HDL-C were significantly higher than those in the MOD group. The screening and analysis of the metabolic pathways showed that SCP could alleviate the development of NAFLD by regulating the expression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP2), UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UGDH), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the liver of NAFLD rats. This study may provide a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of SCP.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xixiang Tang ◽  
Ying Tan ◽  
Yi Yang ◽  
Mei Li ◽  
Xuemin He ◽  

Background: Chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an essential contributor to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The monocyte–to–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (MHR) is a novel and simple measure related to inflammatory and oxidative stress status. However, little is known regarding the role of the MHR in evaluating the development of DR.Methods: A total of 771 patients with T2DM and 607 healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. MHR determination and eye examination were performed. The association of MHR with the prevalence of DR in T2DM patients was analyzed.Results: The MHR in patients with DR was significantly higher than that in both non-DR diabetic patients (P < 0.05) and healthy controls (P < 0.01). No significance was observed in the MHR of different DR severity grades. Moreover, the MHR was similar between patients with non-macular oedema and those with macular oedema. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that MHR was independently associated with the prevalence of DR in diabetic patients [odds ratio (OR) = 1.438, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.249–1.655, P < 0.01]. After additional stratification by HbA1c level and diabetic duration, the MHR was still independently associated with the prevalence of DR.Conclusions: Our study suggests that the MHR can be used as a marker to indicate the prevalence of DR in patients with T2DM.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Fan Luo ◽  
Kang-mei Zeng ◽  
Jia-xin Cao ◽  
Ting Zhou ◽  
Su-xia Lin ◽  

Abstract Background Cancer patients often exhibit chemotherapy-associated changes in serum lipid profiles, however, their prognostic value before and after adjuvant chemotherapy on survival among non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is unknown. Methods NSCLC patients undergoing radical resection and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy from 2013 to 2017 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were retrospectively reviewed. Fasted serum lipid levels were measured before and after chemotherapy. The optimal lipid cut-off values at baseline and fluctuation were determined using X-tile™. The fluctuations in serum lipid levels and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed. Results Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride, apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I, and ApoB all significantly increased after adjuvant chemotherapy. X-tile determined 1.52 mmol/L of HDL-C and 0.74 g/L of ApoB as the optimal cut-off values before chemotherapy. Patients with HDL-C ≥ 1.52 mmol/L (median DFS: not reached vs. 26.30 months, P = 0.0005) and a decreased HDL-C level after adjuvant chemotherapy (median DFS: 80.43 vs. 26.12 months, P = 0.0204) had a longer DFS. An HDL-C level that increased by ≥ 0.32 mmol/L after chemotherapy indicated a worse DFS. A high baseline ApoB level were associated with a superior DFS. In the univariate analysis and the multivariate Cox analyses, a high baseline HDL-C level and a HDL-C reduction after adjuvant chemotherapy were independent indicators for superior DFS. High baseline HDL-C was related to N0-1 stage (χ2 = 6.413, P = 0.011), and HDL-C fluctuation was significantly correlated with specific chemotherapy regimens (χ2 = 5.002, P = 0.025). Conclusions Adjuvant chemotherapy increased various lipid levels in resected NSCLC patients. A higher HDL-C level before chemotherapy and a reduced HDL-C level after adjuvant chemotherapy were independent predictors of longer DFS in patients with curable NSCLC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Rihwa Choi ◽  
Mi-Jung Park ◽  
Youngju Oh ◽  
Sung Ho Kim ◽  
Sang Gon Lee ◽  

Abstract Background Limited data are available for validation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) calculation (LDLcal) in the adult Korean population. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new equation for LDLcal and to compare it with previous such equations in a Korean population. Methods A new equation for LDLcal was developed (LDLChoi). LDLChoi and 11 other previously published equations were applied and compared with directly measured LDL concentration (LDLdirect) in a development cohort (population 1), an independent validation cohort in the same laboratory (population 2), and the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017 cohort (population 3). Results Among the 12 equations, the newly-developed equation (LDLChoi = total cholesterol – 0.87 x high-density lipoprotein cholesterol – 0.13 x triglycerides) had the highest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the lowest mean systemic difference and median absolute percentage error in populations 1 and 2 but not in population 3. Subgroup analysis showed good agreement between LDLChoi and LDLdirect (ICC > 0.75) in population 2, whose LDLdirect < 70 mg/dL. For samples with high triglycerides (> 400 mg/dL), equation accuracy varied. Categorization concordance according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria with the other 11 equations were less than 80%; that of LDLChoi was 87.6 and 87.4% in populations 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusions Accuracy of 12 equations for LDLcal varied by cohort and subgroup based on LDLdirect and triglycerides. A laboratory-specific equation for LDLcal and/or LDLdirect may be needed for accurate evaluation of LDL status.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Shiqi Lv ◽  
Han Zhang ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  
Ziyan Shen ◽  
Cheng Zhu ◽  

Abstract Background Previous studies show that abnormal lipoprotein metabolism can increase the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study prospectively investigated the association of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and renal dysfunction in the Chinese population. Methods This longitudinal cohort research examined 7,316 participants (age range: 22–93) from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), including 6,560 individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (normal renal function, NRF) group and 756 with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (impaired renal function, IRF) group. In NRF group, reduction in renal function was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at exit visit and in IRF group, it was defined as decline in eGFR category, average eGFR decline > 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year or > 30 % decrease in eGFR from baseline. Results The study results showed that TG/HDL-C ratio was positively associated with the risk of renal function decline in the NRF group (OR 1.30, 95 %CI 1.03–1.65, P = 0.03) and the IRF group (OR 1.90, 95 %CI 1.21–3.23, P = 0.02) when adjusting for age, gender, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, waist circumference, drinking, smoking, history of heart disease and stroke, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and eGFR category. Analysis of the IRF group indicated that relative to the group of TG/HDL-C < 1.60, the group of TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.97 had an increased risk for the decline of eGFR category (OR 1.89, 95 %CI 1.12–3.21, P = 0.02) and > 30 % decline in eGFR (OR 2.56, 95 %CI 1.05–6.38, P = 0.04). Conclusions The high TG/HDL-C ratio was an independent risk factor for declining renal function in the Chinese population.

Ekaterina V. Nekrasova ◽  
Ekaterina E. Larionova ◽  
Katerina Danko ◽  
Darya O. Kuzmina ◽  
Vladimir S. Shavva ◽  

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