scanning electron microscope
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 602
Xixi Wu ◽  
Changjie Cai ◽  
Javier Gil ◽  
Elizabeth Jantz ◽  
Yacoub Al Sakka ◽  

Titanium particles embedded on peri-implant tissues are associated with a variety of detrimental effects. Given that the characteristics of these detached fragments (size, concentration, etc.) dictate the potential cytotoxicity and biological repercussions exerted, it is of paramount importance to investigate the properties of these debris. This study compares the characteristics of particles released among different implant systems (Group A: Straumann, Group B: BioHorizons and Group C: Zimmer) during implantoplasty. A novel experimental system was utilized for measuring and collecting particles generated from implantoplasty. A scanning mobility particle sizer, aerodynamic particle sizer, nano micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor, and scanning electron microscope were used to collect and analyze the particles by size. The chemical composition of the particles was analyzed by highly sensitive microanalysis, microstructures by scanning electron microscope and the mechanical properties by nanoindentation equipment. Particles released by implantoplasty showed bimodal size distributions, with the majority of particles in the ultrafine size range (<100 nm) for all groups. Statistical analysis indicated a significant difference among all implant systems in terms of the particle number size distribution (p < 0.0001), with the highest concentration in Group B and lowest in Group C, in both fine and ultrafine modes. Significant differences among all groups (p < 0.0001) were also observed for the other two metrics, with the highest concentration of particle mass and surface area in Group B and lowest in Group C, in both fine and ultrafine modes. For coarse particles (>1 µm), no significant difference was detected among groups in terms of particle number or mass, but a significantly smaller surface area was found in Group A as compared to Group B (p = 0.02) and Group C (p = 0.005). The 1 first minute of procedures had a higher number concentration compared to the second and third minutes. SEM-EDS analysis showed different morphologies for various implant systems. These results can be explained by the differences in the chemical composition and microstructures of the different dental implants. Group B is softer than Groups A and C due to the laser treatment in the neck producing an increase of the grain size. The hardest implants were those of Group C due to the cold-strained titanium alloy, and consequently they displayed lower release than Groups A and B. Implantoplasty was associated with debris particle release, with the majority of particles at nanometric dimensions. BioHorizons implants released more particles compared to Straumann and Zimmer. Due to the widespread use of implantoplasty, it is of key importance to understand the characteristics of the generated debris. This is the first study to detect, quantify and analyze the debris/particles released from dental implants during implantoplasty including the full range of particle sizes, including both micro- and nano-scales.

2022 ◽  
Sanjeev Kumar Kanth ◽  
Anjli Sharma ◽  
Byong Chon Park ◽  
Woon Song ◽  
Hyun Rhu ◽  

Abstract We have constructed a new nanomanipulator (NM) in a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) to fabricate carbon nanotube (CNT) tip to precisely adjust the length and attachment angle of CNT onto the mother atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The new NM is composed of 2 modules, each of which has the degree of freedom of three-dimensional rectilinear motion x, y and z and one-dimensional rotational motion θ. The NM is mounted on the stage of a FE-SEM. With the system of 14 axes in total which includes 5 axes of FE-SEM and 9 axes of nano-actuators, it was possible to see CNT tip from both rear and side view about the mother tip. With the help of new NM, the attachment angle error could be reduced down to 0º as seen from both the side and the rear view, as well as, the length of the CNT could be adjusted with the precision using electron beam induced etching. For the proper attachment of CNT on the mother tip surface, the side of the mother tip was milled with focused ion beam. In addition, electron beam induced deposition was used to strengthen the adhesion between CNT and the mother tip. In order to check the structural integrity of fabricated CNT, transmission electron microscope image was taken which showed the fine cutting of CNT and the clean surface as well. Finally, the performance of the fabricated CNT tip was demonstrated by imaging 1-D grating and DNA samples with atomic force microscope in tapping mode.

Suresh Panchal ◽  
Unnikrishnan Gopinathan ◽  
Suwarna Datar

Abstract We report noise reduction and image enhancement in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging while maintaining a Fast-Scan rate during imaging, using a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (D-CNN). SEM images of non-conducting samples without conducting coating always suffer from charging phenomenon, giving rise to SEM images with low contrast or anomalous contrast and permanent damage to the sample. One of the ways to avoid this effect is to use Fast-Scan mode, which suppresses the charging effect fairly well. Unfortunately, this also introduces noise and gives blurred images. The D-CNN has been used to predict relatively noise-free images as obtained from a Slow-Scan from a noisy, Fast-Scan image. The predicted images from D-CNN have the sharpness of images obtained from a Slow-Scan rate while reducing the charging effect due to images obtained from Fast-Scan rates. We show that using the present method, and it is possible to increase the scanning rate by a factor of about seven with an output of image quality comparable to that of the Slow-Scan mode. We present experimental results in support of the proposed method.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 76-85
Athiah Masykuroh ◽  
Heny Puspasari

Biosintesis Nano partikel perak (NPP) pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan bantuan ekstrak air tanaman keladi sarawak Alocasia macrorrhizos sebagai bioreduktor dengan variasi konsentrasi larutan AgNO3 sebesar 0,05 M ; 0,10 M dan 0,15 M. Studi keberhasilan pembentukan NPP didasarkan pada pengamatan perubahan warna dan terbentuknya Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) dengan bantuan instrumen Spektofotometer UV-Visibel dan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Uji Aktivitas antibakteri dilakukan dengan metode difusi kertas cakram. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa NPP terbentuk maksimum pada panjang gelombang maksimum 450,00 nm yaitu pada variasi konsentrasi larutan AgNO3 0,15 M. Uji morfologi menggunakan SEM menunjukkan partikelnya berbentuk batang (nanorods) dengan ukuran diameter rata-rata masing-masing variasi 826,44 nm (0,05 M), 283,44 nm (0,10 M) dan 266,33 nm (0,15 M). NPP hasil biosintesis menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri terhadap kedua jenis bakteri Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli pada pengenceran konsentrasi masing-masing variasi NPP sebesar 50%. Kata kunci :nanopartikel perak, keladi sarawak, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli

2022 ◽  
Vol 905 ◽  
pp. 30-37
Shu Lan Zhang ◽  
Xiao Dan Zhang ◽  
Hai Feng Xu ◽  
Chang Wang

Effect of microstructure size and type on the hardness for the duplex steel were disclosed by using of optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and nanoindenter for the samples hot compressed under different temperature with reduction of 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%. OM and SEM were used to measure the average martensite lamellar width, space and indenter morphology. nanoindenter test characterized the microstructure hardness for the samples under different process. Experiment results show that martensite hardness for the sample hot compressed at 950°C has larger diversity than that of sample hot compressed at 1200°C. The martensite hardness fluctuation range for the sample compressed at 950°C is almost from about 7GPa to 12GPa, while, for the sample compressed at 1200°C, the fluctuation range is basically from about 9GPa to 12GPa. However, the average hardness for the samples hot compressed at 950°C is comparably smaller, which is related with lower quench temperature. The larger martensite hardness fluctuation is mainly related with induced ferrite formation and finer martensite lamellar width. For the ferrite phase, the hardness fluctuation range is lower.

2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 7-20
E. M. Sayenko ◽  
V. M. Kazarin

Mature glochidia of freshwater bivalves can give additional features for taxonomic revisions. To study morphology of glochidia with the scanning electron microscope (SEM), special collecting techniques, storage and preparation are required. Based on extensive personal experience, an overview of various techniques is presented, both positive and negative. The interactions of chemicals used for the storage of glochidia and dissolution of glochidial tissue are described. Techniques for cleaning and mounting the glochidial shells of Unionidae for investigations by SEM are described and compared.

2022 ◽  
pp. 387-419
Mukesh Kumar Singh ◽  
Annika Singh

2022 ◽  
Vol 962 (1) ◽  
pp. 012059
R V Shtokalo ◽  
N A Krivolutskaya ◽  
A A Konyshev ◽  
I T Rass ◽  
S I Demidova

Abstract We studied 6 sections of the Arydzhangsky lava formation (P2-T1) in the Kotuy river valley. The results of petrographic and geochemical studies of the composition of rocks of the Arydzhangsky, Khardaksky and Pravoboyarsky formations are presented. The stratigraphic columns of the sections were built and the composition of the rocks was additionally determined using a scanning electron microscope. In this regard, the relative position of these formations was established, the mantle and crust sources of magmas were confirmed. A geochemical identity of the rocks of the Khardaksky formation with the rocks of the Arydzhangsky formation was established, which suggests a similar age of their formation.

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