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2022 ◽  
Vol 321 ◽  
pp. 126326
Author(s):  
Gladis Aparecida Galindo Reisemberger de Souza ◽  
Ramón Sigifredo Cortés Paredes ◽  
Frieda Saicla Barros ◽  
Gustavo Bavaresco Sucharski ◽  
Sebastião Ribeiro Junior ◽  
...  

Scanning ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Meng Du ◽  
Haifeng Mei ◽  
Ya Liu

Phase equilibria of the Fe-Al-Ni-O system at 750°C were determined by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer and X-ray power diffraction. 54 alloys were prepared with weighted metal and Ni2O3 powder and were annealed at 750°C for 45 days. Two four-phase equilibrium regions and three three-phase equilibrium regions were confirmed, and the boundary between spinel and corundum was obtained. Comparing with the Fe-Al-Ni-O oxidation diagram at 750°C calculated with FSstel and FToxid databases, the phase boundary of the spinel and corundum oxides from experiments was inclined to the Ni-Al side. The determined relationship between primary oxides and alloy composition in this work can be used as a reference for the preparation of the oxide film by selective oxidation.


Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 93
Author(s):  
George Pchelarov ◽  
Dzhamal Uzun ◽  
Sasho Vassilev ◽  
Elena Razkazova-Velkova ◽  
Ognian Dimitrov ◽  
...  

Described herewith is an electrochemical method to decontaminate sulphur compounds. Studies were carried out of sulphites (SO32−) oxidation on a range of anode catalysts. The electrocatalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, XRD, XPS and BET. Polarization curves were recorded of electrodes incorporating lyophilized higher fullerenes and manganese oxides. The experiments showed that lyophilized higher fullerenes and C60/C70 fullerene catalysts in conjunction with manganese oxides electrochemically convert sulphites (SO32−) to sulphates (SO42−). The oxidation products do not poison the electrodes. The XPS analysis shows that the catalysts incorporating DWCNTs, MWCNTs and higher fullerenes have a higher concentration of sp3C carbon bonding leading to higher catalytic activity. It is ascertained that higher fullerenes play a major role in the synthesis of more effective catalysts. The electrodes built by incorporating lyophilized catalysts containing higher fullerenes and manganese oxides are shown as most promising in the effective electrochemical decontamination of industrial and natural wastewaters.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
M.A. Bouacheria ◽  
A. Djelloul ◽  
M. Adnane

Abstract Pure and Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with different aluminium (Al) concentrations (Al: 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 wt.%) were prepared on p-type Si(100) substrate by a dip-coating technique using different zinc and aluminum precursors. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of these films were investigated using a number of techniques, including the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force electron microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, photoluminescence(PL) spectroscopy and four-point probe technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results shown that the obtained (AZO) films were polycrystalline with a highly c-axis preferred (002) orientation, and the average crystallites size decrease from 28.32 to 24.61 nm with the increase in Al dopant concentration. The studies demonstrated that the ZnO film had a good transparency in the visible range with the maximum transmittance of 95% and the band gaps (Eg) varied from 3.16 to 3.26 eV by alumium doping. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the surface morphology of the films changed with increase of Al-doping. The photoluminescence spectra also showed changed with Al-doping.


Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 602
Author(s):  
Xixi Wu ◽  
Changjie Cai ◽  
Javier Gil ◽  
Elizabeth Jantz ◽  
Yacoub Al Sakka ◽  
...  

Titanium particles embedded on peri-implant tissues are associated with a variety of detrimental effects. Given that the characteristics of these detached fragments (size, concentration, etc.) dictate the potential cytotoxicity and biological repercussions exerted, it is of paramount importance to investigate the properties of these debris. This study compares the characteristics of particles released among different implant systems (Group A: Straumann, Group B: BioHorizons and Group C: Zimmer) during implantoplasty. A novel experimental system was utilized for measuring and collecting particles generated from implantoplasty. A scanning mobility particle sizer, aerodynamic particle sizer, nano micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor, and scanning electron microscope were used to collect and analyze the particles by size. The chemical composition of the particles was analyzed by highly sensitive microanalysis, microstructures by scanning electron microscope and the mechanical properties by nanoindentation equipment. Particles released by implantoplasty showed bimodal size distributions, with the majority of particles in the ultrafine size range (<100 nm) for all groups. Statistical analysis indicated a significant difference among all implant systems in terms of the particle number size distribution (p < 0.0001), with the highest concentration in Group B and lowest in Group C, in both fine and ultrafine modes. Significant differences among all groups (p < 0.0001) were also observed for the other two metrics, with the highest concentration of particle mass and surface area in Group B and lowest in Group C, in both fine and ultrafine modes. For coarse particles (>1 µm), no significant difference was detected among groups in terms of particle number or mass, but a significantly smaller surface area was found in Group A as compared to Group B (p = 0.02) and Group C (p = 0.005). The 1 first minute of procedures had a higher number concentration compared to the second and third minutes. SEM-EDS analysis showed different morphologies for various implant systems. These results can be explained by the differences in the chemical composition and microstructures of the different dental implants. Group B is softer than Groups A and C due to the laser treatment in the neck producing an increase of the grain size. The hardest implants were those of Group C due to the cold-strained titanium alloy, and consequently they displayed lower release than Groups A and B. Implantoplasty was associated with debris particle release, with the majority of particles at nanometric dimensions. BioHorizons implants released more particles compared to Straumann and Zimmer. Due to the widespread use of implantoplasty, it is of key importance to understand the characteristics of the generated debris. This is the first study to detect, quantify and analyze the debris/particles released from dental implants during implantoplasty including the full range of particle sizes, including both micro- and nano-scales.


Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Author(s):  
José Castanheiro

Glycerol acetalization with citral was studied using a heteropolyacid (tungstophosphoric acid) supported on KIT-6, as a catalyst, at 100 °C. Different catalysts were synthesized. Catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total refletion-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and potentiometric titrations. At a fixed time, the glycerol conversion increased with the H3PW12O40 (PW) on KIT-6. PW4-KIT-6 material had a higher conversion than other catalysts. The optimization of glycerol’s acetalization with citral was studied under the PW4-KIT-6 catalyst. After 5 h, it was found that, at T = 100 °C, with m = 0.3 g of solid, molar glycerol:citral = 1:2.25, the conversion of glycerol was 89%. Moreover, the PW4-KTI-6 catalyst showed good catalytic stability.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dongye Zhao ◽  
Sebastijan Brezinsek ◽  
Rongxing Yi ◽  
Jannis Oelmann ◽  
Cai Laizhong ◽  
...  

Abstract One set of horizontal target elements of the Test Divertor Units (TDU), retrieved from the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) vessel after the end of second divertor Operation Phase (OP1.2B) in Hydrogen (H), were investigated by picosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (ps-LIBS). The Boron (B) distribution, H pattern and the material erosion/deposition pattern on these target elements were analyzed with high depth resolution and mapped in the poloidal direction of W7-X. From the spectroscopic analysis, B, H, Carbon (C) and Molybdenum (Mo) were clearly identified. A non-uniformly distributed B pattern on these divertor target elements was determined by the combination of B layer deposition during the three boronizations and W7-X plasma operation with multiple erosion and deposition steps of B. Like the TDU, the analyzed target elements are made of fine grain graphite, but have two marker layers which allow us to determine the material migration via the ps-LIBS technique. Two net erosion zones including one main erosion zone with a peak erosion depth of 6.5 μm and one weak erosion with a peak erosion of 1.3 μm were determined. Between two net erosion zones, a net deposition zone with width of 135 mm and a thickness up to 3.5 μm at the peak deposition location was determined by the ps-LIBS technique. The B distributions are correlated with the erosion/deposition pattern and the operational time in standard magnetic configuration of W7-X in the phases after the boronizations. The thickness of the containing B layer on these target elements also correlates with the erosion/deposition depth, in which the thickness of the containing B layer varies spatially in poloidal direction between 0.1 μm and 6 μm. Complementary, Focused Ion Beam combined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) was employed also to verify and investigate the deposition layer thicknesses at typical net erosion and net deposition zones as well as to identify the three boronizations in depth.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
Author(s):  
Runjhun Tandon ◽  
Shripad Patil ◽  
Nitin Tandon ◽  
Pushpendra Kumar

Abstract: A novel magnetite silica-coated nanoparticle-supported molybdate nanocatalyst has been prepared successfully by a simple co-precipitation method. Prepared nanocatalyst has been characterized by different techniques like Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Further, the catalytic activity of the nanocatalyst was explored for N-formylation reactions under solvent-free conditions. Interestingly, the catalyst could be reused for 10 cycles and only 2 mol % of the catalyst was sufficient to catalyze the N-formylation reaction at 700C under solvent-free conditions.


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