Temperament according to Jan Strelau’s concept and posttraumatic stress disorder: current status and future perspectives on neurobiological studies

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 ◽  
pp. 6-13
Bogdan Zawadzki ◽  
Maria Cyniak-Cieciura
Matthias A. Reinhard ◽  
Johanna Seifert ◽  
Timo Greiner ◽  
Sermin Toto ◽  
Stefan Bleich ◽  

AbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with limited approved pharmacological treatment options and high symptom burden. Therefore, real-life prescription patterns may differ from guideline recommendations, especially in psychiatric inpatient settings. The European Drug Safety Program in Psychiatry (“Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie”, AMSP) collects inpatients’ prescription rates cross-sectionally twice a year in German-speaking psychiatric hospitals. For this study, the AMSP database was screened for psychiatric inpatients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD between 2001 and 2017. N = 1,044 patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD were identified with 89.9% taking psychotropics. The average prescription rate was 2.4 (standard deviation: 1.5) psychotropics per patient with high rates of antidepressant drugs (72.0%), antipsychotics drugs (58.4%) and tranquilizing drugs (29.3%). The presence of psychiatric comorbidities was associated with higher rates of psychotropic drug use. The most often prescribed substances were quetiapine (24.1% of all patients), lorazepam (18.1%) and mirtazapine (15.0%). The use of drugs approved for PTSD was low (sertraline 11.1%; paroxetine 3.7%). Prescription rates of second-generation antipsychotic drugs increased, while the use of tranquilizing drugs declined over the years. High prescription rates and extensive use of sedative medication suggest a symptom-driven prescription (e.g., hyperarousal, insomnia) that can only be explained to a minor extent by existing comorbidities. The observed discrepancy with existing guidelines underlines the need for effective pharmacological and psychological treatment options in psychiatric inpatient settings.

2015 ◽  
Vol 156 (33) ◽  
pp. 1321-1334 ◽  
Kinga Edit Fodor ◽  
István Bitter

Introduction: Because of the high prevalence of exposure to traumatic events and its negative consequences on mental health, the importance of effective interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder has been emphasized. Aim: The authors wanted to evaluate the current status of evidence regarding early psychological interventions after traumatization. Method: A search was conducted in ProQuest PILOTS, PubMed, and Web of Science for early psychological interventions that were published between 2005 and 2015. Results: Twenty-one trials were identified, of which 6 presented immediate interventions (within 72 hours) and the rest early interventions within the first month. Based on these research findings immediate interventions are not effective, whilst multi-session cognitive behavior therapies could be effective in symptom reduction. Conclusions: Multi-session cognitive behavior therapy is preferred over immediate one session interventions especially over debriefing. A natural decline of symptoms was observed among controls and, therefore, targeted interventions are recommended only for people with higher risk for developing subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(33), 1321–1334.

2019 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 284-290
Ad de Jongh ◽  
Iva Bicanic ◽  
Suzy Matthijssen ◽  
Benedikt L. Amann ◽  
Arne Hofmann ◽  

Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) is a diagnostic entity that will be included in the forthcoming edition of the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision (ICD-11). It denotes a severe form of PTSD, comprising not only the symptom clusters of PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV-TR]), but also clusters reflecting difficulties in regulating emotions, disturbances in relational capacities, and adversely affected belief systems about oneself, others, or the world. Evidence is mounting suggesting that first-line trauma-focused treatments, including eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, are effective not only for the treatment of PTSD, but also for the treatment of patients with a history of early childhood interpersonal trauma who are suffering from symptoms characteristic of CPTSD. However, controversy exists as to when EMDR therapy should be offered to people with CPTSD. This article reviews the evidence in support of EMDR therapy as a first-line treatment for CPTSD and addresses the fact that there appears to be little empirical evidence supporting the view that there should be a stabilization phase prior to trauma processing in working with CPTSD.

2015 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
pp. 35-50 ◽  
Sara C. Schroeder ◽  
Ronald M. Ruff ◽  
Lutz Jäncke

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on (a) neuropsychological test performance and (b) self-reported emotional complaints within individuals suffering from postconcussional disorder (PCD) after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). A two-group comparative research design was employed. Two MTBI samples with and without PTSD were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery and the Ruff Neurobehavioral Inventory (RNBI). On the neurocognitive test performances no significant between group differences were found, but the MTBI group with PTSD endorsed a significantly greater number of emotional complaints, especially in the RNBI subscales of anxiety and depression. The patients with PTSD also endorsed a significantly greater number of premorbid sequelae in the RNBI emotional composite scale as well as the RNBI premorbid subscales of pain, anxiety and abuse. In sum, PTSD has a negative impact on emotional but not cognitive functioning within individuals suffering from PCD after a mild TBI.

2009 ◽  
Vol 57 (1) ◽  
pp. 33-42 ◽  
Lena Schirmer ◽  
Anja Mehnert ◽  
Angela Scherwath ◽  
Barbara Schleimer ◽  
Frank Schulz-Kindermann ◽  

Die in mehreren Studien gefundenen kognitiven Störungen bei Tumorpatienten nach Chemotherapie werden zumeist mit der Zytostatikaneurotoxizität assoziiert. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird der Zusammenhang von Angst, Depression und Posttraumatischer Belastungsstörung mit der kognitiven Leistungsfähigkeit bei Frauen mit Mammakarzinom untersucht. Insgesamt wurden 76 Brustkrebspatientinnen fünf Jahre nach Abschluss der onkologischen Behandlung mit neuropsychologischen Testverfahren sowie mit der Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Deutsche Version (HADS-D) und der Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C) untersucht: 23 nach Standard- und 24 nach Hochdosistherapie sowie 29 nach Brustoperation und Strahlentherapie als Vergleichsgruppe. Signifikante Zusammenhänge sind vor allem zwischen kognitiven Funktionen und Intrusionssymptomen einer Posttraumatischen Belastungsstörung (PTBS) festzustellen. Bei Patientinnen nach Standardtherapie weisen Intrusionen der PTBS einen moderaten Zusammenhang mit der globalen kognitiven Beeinträchtigung auf. Die Ergebnisse der Studie deuten auf multidimensionale Einfluss- und moderierende Faktoren bei der Entwicklung kognitiver Defizite bei Brustkrebspatientinnen nach onkologischer Therapie hin.

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