Brain Injury
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(FIVE YEARS 22543)



2021 ◽  
pp. 000313482110516
Navpreet K. Dhillon ◽  
Yassar M. Hashim ◽  
Geena Conde ◽  
George Phillips ◽  
Nicole M Fierro ◽  

Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in an elaborate systemic cascade of secondary injury elicited in part by an intrinsic catecholamine response, which ultimately leads to changes in inflammation and coagulopathy. Attenuation of this catecholamine response with agents such as propranolol confers a survival advantage. The related impact of propranolol on venous thromboembolism (VTE) after TBI is largely unknown. Study Design A single institution retrospective review was conducted of all TBI patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission with an injury severity scale (ISS) ≥ 25 from January 2013 to May 2015. Patients who received at least one dose of propranolol within 24 hours of admission (PROP) were compared to patients who did not receive any doses of propranolol (NPROP) during their hospitalization. Results Of the 131 patients analyzed, 31 (23.7%) patients received propranolol. The PROP cohort was more severely injured overall (ISS 29 vs 26.5, P = .02). While unadjusted VTE rates were similar (16.1% vs 19.0%, P = .72), the adjusted VTE rate was lower in the PROP cohort (AOR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04-0.97), adjusted P-value < .05). Conclusion Propranolol use in TBI patients who have sustained critical injuries may mitigate the risk of VTE. The mechanism by which this outcome is achieved requires further investigation.

Claudio Sandroni ◽  
Tobias Cronberg ◽  
Mypinder Sekhon

2021 ◽  
Vol 72 ◽  
pp. 102674
John D. Corrigan ◽  
Mike Vuolo ◽  
Jennifer Bogner ◽  
Amanda L. Botticello ◽  
Shanti M. Pinto ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
M. E. O’Sullivan ◽  
E. C. Considine ◽  
M. O'Riordan ◽  
W. P. Marnane ◽  
J. M. Rennie ◽  

Background: CTG remains the only non-invasive tool available to the maternity team for continuous monitoring of fetal well-being during labour. Despite widespread use and investment in staff training, difficulty with CTG interpretation continues to be identified as a problem in cases of fetal hypoxia, which often results in permanent brain injury. Given the recent advances in AI, it is hoped that its application to CTG will offer a better, less subjective and more reliable method of CTG interpretation.Objectives: This mini-review examines the literature and discusses the impediments to the success of AI application to CTG thus far. Prior randomised control trials (RCTs) of CTG decision support systems are reviewed from technical and clinical perspectives. A selection of novel engineering approaches, not yet validated in RCTs, are also reviewed. The review presents the key challenges that need to be addressed in order to develop a robust AI tool to identify fetal distress in a timely manner so that appropriate intervention can be made.Results: The decision support systems used in three RCTs were reviewed, summarising the algorithms, the outcomes of the trials and the limitations. Preliminary work suggests that the inclusion of clinical data can improve the performance of AI-assisted CTG. Combined with newer approaches to the classification of traces, this offers promise for rewarding future development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Kowallick Mirjam ◽  
Meray Serdar ◽  
Boyka Markova ◽  
Eva Salveridou ◽  
Ursula Felderhoff-Müser ◽  

Introduction: High oxygen concentrations have been identified as one factor contributing to the pathogenesis of the retinopathia of prematurity, chronic lung disease of the preterm infant and preterm brain injury. Preterm infants also show short- and long-term alterations of the endocrine system. If hyperoxia is one pathogenetic factor has not been investigated yet. With regard to the high prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairments in preterm infants, the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the hypothalamus-pituitary-somatotropic (HPS) axis are of special interest due to their important role in neurodevelopment.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperoxia on the endocrine system in the neonatal rat by analyzing the activities of the HPT, HPA and HPS axes, respectively.Methods: Three-days old Wistar rats were exposed to hyperoxia (oxygen 80%, 48 h). On postnatal day 5 (P5) and P11, transcript levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), proopiomelanocortin and growth hormone (GH) were analyzed in pituitary sections by in situ hybridization. Serologic quantification of TSH and thyroxine (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone and GH were performed by Multiplex analysis and Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.Results: At P5, significantly lower GH levels were observed in pituitaries (mRNA) and in sera of rats exposed to hyperoxia. Serum TSH was significantly elevated without changes in T4.Conclusion: This is the first study demonstrating transient endocrine alterations following hyperoxia in the neonatal rat making oxygen a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of endocrine alterations seen in preterm infants. Considering the detrimental multi-organ effects of hyperoxia on the immature organism, a rational use of therapeutic oxygen in the treatrnent of preterm infants is of utmost importance.

GeroScience ◽  
2021 ◽  
David J. Robles ◽  
Ammar Dharani ◽  
Kenneth A. Rostowsky ◽  
Nikhil N. Chaudhari ◽  
Van Ngo ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Ilaria Alice Crippa ◽  
Jean-Louis Vincent ◽  
Federica Zama Cavicchi ◽  
Selene Pozzebon ◽  
Filippo Annoni ◽  

Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of altered CAR in anoxic brain injury and the association with patients’ outcome. We aimed at investigating CAR in cardiac arrest survivors treated by targeted temperature management and its association to outcome. Methods Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria: adult cardiac arrest survivors treated by targeted temperature management (TTM). Exclusion criteria: trauma; sepsis, intoxication; acute intra-cranial disease; history of supra-aortic vascular disease; severe hemodynamic instability; cardiac output mechanical support; arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) > 60 mmHg; arrhythmias; lack of acoustic window. Middle cerebral artery flow velocitiy (FV) was assessed by transcranial Doppler (TCD) once during hypothermia (HT) and once during normothermia (NT). FV and blood pressure (BP) were recorded simultaneously and Mxa calculated (MATLAB). Mxa is the Pearson correlation coefficient between FV and BP. Mxa > 0.3 defined altered CAR. Survival was assessed at hospital discharge. Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 3–5 assessed 3 months after CA defined unfavorable neurological outcome (UO). Results We included 50 patients (Jan 2015–Dec 2018). All patients had out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, 24 (48%) had initial shockable rhythm. Time to return of spontaneous circulation was 20 [10–35] min. HT (core body temperature 33.7 [33.2–34] °C) lasted for 24 [23–28] h, followed by rewarming and NT (core body temperature: 36.9 [36.6–37.4] °C). Thirty-one (62%) patients did not survive at hospital discharge and 36 (72%) had UO. Mxa was lower during HT than during NT (0.33 [0.11–0.58] vs. 0.58 [0.30–0.83]; p = 0.03). During HT, Mxa did not differ between outcome groups. During NT, Mxa was higher in patients with UO than others (0.63 [0.43–0.83] vs. 0.31 [− 0.01–0.67]; p = 0.03). Mxa differed among CPC values at NT (p = 0.03). Specifically, CPC 2 group had lower Mxa than CPC 3 and 5 groups. At multivariate analysis, initial non-shockable rhythm, high Mxa during NT and highly malignant electroencephalography pattern (HMp) were associated with in-hospital mortality; high Mxa during NT and HMp were associated with UO. Conclusions CAR is frequently altered in cardiac arrest survivors treated by TTM. Altered CAR during normothermia was independently associated with poor outcome.

2021 ◽  
Crawford M. Thomas

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