Anxiety And Depression
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2021 ◽  
Julian Busch ◽  
Lisa Schettgen ◽  
Eva Krey ◽  
Clara Bleckmann ◽  
Rainer Georg Siefen

Anxiety and depression are among the disorders with highest prevalence during childhood. Previous research has substantiated that individual’s high irritability promotes the occurrence of associated symptoms while high ego-resilience protects against them. So far, little is known about how ego-resilience could engage with irritability for symptom development. We investigated interactional effects of irritability with ego-resilience on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Overall, 228 children from a combined clinical and nonclinical sample aged 7 to 18 years participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey. They reported on internalizing symptoms, ego-resilience, and irritability. A moderated hierarchical regression analysis showed that ego-resilience was negatively associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression, and that irritability was positively related to heightened symptom levels. Ego-resilience and irritability were overall stronger associated with symptoms of depression than anxiety. Irritability moderated the association between ego-resilience and depression such that effects of ego-resilience were stronger among highly irritable participants. Our results suggest that highly irritable children could benefit to a larger extent from ego-resilience capacities, possibly yielding a protective role of irritability for buffering internalizing symptoms. Our findings highlight differential psychopathological mechanisms that underlie depression and anxiety. They also pinpoint to a dynamic systems approach when assessing determinants of psychopathology which are traditionally interpreted as either risk-increasing or protective. Furthering research that considers irritability within environmental/biological sensitivity frameworks could help better understanding our findings.

Francisco José Sánchez-Torralvo ◽  
Victoria Contreras-Bolívar ◽  
María Ruiz-Vico ◽  
José Abuín-Fernández ◽  
Inmaculada González-Almendros ◽  

Abstract Background Anxiety and depression are a common issue in patients with cancer, yet understudied among hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptomatology in cancer inpatients and its relationship with malnutrition. Methods Cross-sectional study in hospitalized cancer patients. A nutritional assessment was done using the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria to diagnose malnutrition. Data regarding anxiety and depression symptomatology was obtained with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results A total of 282 inpatients were assessed. GLIM criteria found 20% (66) of well-nourished and 80% (216) with malnutrition. HADS presented an average score of 8.3 ± 4.4 with respect to anxiety and an average score of 7.7 ± 4.6 with respect to depression. Up to 54% of the patients showed a possible presence of anxiety, and 45.3% of them showed a possible presence of depression. In malnourished patients, HADS score was non-significantly higher with respect to anxiety (8.5 ± 4.3 in malnourished vs 7.1 ± 4.6 in well-nourished; p = 0.06) and was significantly higher with respect to depression (8.2 ± 4.6 in malnourished vs 5.3 ± 4.0 in well-nourished; p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounders, malnourished patients were 1.98 times more likely to present anxious symptomatology (95% CI 1.01–3.98; p = 0.049) and 6.29 times more likely to present depressive symptomatology (95% CI 1.73–20.47; p = 0.005). Conclusions The presence of anxiety and depression symptomatology in oncological inpatients is high. There is an association between malnutrition and presenting anxious and depressive symptomatology in hospitalized cancer patients.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257658
Joel Myerson ◽  
Michael J. Strube ◽  
Leonard Green ◽  
Sandra Hale

The present study examined individual characteristics potentially associated with changes in mitigation behaviors (social distancing and hygiene) recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Analysis of online survey responses from 361 adults, ages 20–78, with US IP addresses, identified significant correlates of adaptive behavioral changes, with implications for preventive strategies and mental health needs. The extent to which individuals changed their mitigation behaviors was unrelated to self-rated health or concern regarding the personal effects of COVID-19 but was related to concern regarding the effects of the pandemic on others. Thus, mitigation behaviors do not appear to be primarily motivated by self-protection. Importantly, adaptive changes in mitigation behaviors increased with age. However, these changes, particularly those related to the frequency of close proximity encounters, appear to be due to age-related decreases in anxiety and depression. Taken together, the present results argue against over-reliance on ‘fear appeals’ in public health messages as they may increase anxiety and depression. Instead, the present findings argue for more appeals to people’s concern for others to motivate mitigation as well as indicating an immediate need to address individual mental health concerns for the sake of society as a whole.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1250
Ibanelo Cortez ◽  
Patricia S. Brocardo ◽  
J. Leigh Leasure

Binge alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders (AUD) are prevalent, and there is comorbidity with depression and anxiety. Potential underlying mechanisms include neurophysiological, genetic, and metabolic changes resulting from alcohol exposure. Mood and anxiety disorders are more common among women, but whether females are more susceptible to binge-induced oxidative stress and co-occurring anxiety and depression-like behaviors remains unknown. Here, we used a repeated, weekly binge alcohol paradigm in male and female rats to investigate sex differences in despair and anxiety-like behaviors and brain oxidative stress parameters. A single binge alcohol exposure significantly elevated glutathione (GSH) levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of both male and female animals. This was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation in PFC of both sexes. Repeated (once weekly) binge exposure induced changes in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in both males and females and increased GSH level in the PFC without detectable oxidative damage. Our findings suggest that repeated binge alcohol exposure influences affect regardless of sex and in the absence of membrane damage.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Patricia Bonilla-Sierra ◽  
Alexis Manrique-G ◽  
Paula Hidalgo-Andrade ◽  
Pablo Ruisoto

Background: The current mental health state of healthcare professionals and students during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador remains understudied and how to improve their mental health is a challenge.Objective: This study aimed to explore the anxiety and depressive symptomatology among healthcare students and professionals in Ecuador and to examine the role of psychological inflexibility, loneliness, and psychological stress as predictors of anxiety and depression symptoms.Methods: A total of 191 undergraduate and graduate healthcare students in clinical practice (early-career healthcare professionals) in Ecuador were surveyed between January and March 2021 using standardized measures of psychological stress (PSS), psychological inflexibility (AAQ), loneliness (UCLA), alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), and anxiety and depressive symptomatology (PHQ). Macro Process for SPSS (models 4 and 7) were used to test mediation effects.Results: Alcohol consumption varied between men and women and anxiety and depression symptomatology was generally low among the sample. Psychological inflexibility and loneliness mediated the impact of stress on anxiety and depressive mood in participants, regardless of gender and previous personal history of COVID-19.Discussion: Implications of psychological inflexibility and the prevention and coping with stress in healthcare professionals during COVID-19 are further discussed.

2021 ◽  
Zhaoqiang Jiang ◽  
Guoming Lin ◽  
Junqiang Chen ◽  
Junfei Chen ◽  
Huiquan Jiang ◽  

Abstract Background Mental health of university volunteers is essential for the successful holding of essential meetings and sports games. The impact of personality traits on the mental symptoms of university volunteers is not well studied. The study objective is to assess personality traits as predictors of mental symptoms in university volunteers in China. Method We carried out a cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of volunteers from sixteen main universities in the city of Hangzhou. The OQ-45 scale was used to evaluate mental symptoms and the PHI was used for the measurement of personality traits. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to study relationships between personality factors and mental symptoms. Results Estimation of personality traits revealed higher scores on subscales of hypomania, depression, and psychopathic deviance. The OQ-45 scale identified 1.4% of volunteers as having psychological disorders. PHI scores were positively correlated with scores on the OQ-45 scale (P < 0.01). Anxiety was correlated particularly strongly with interpersonal relationship score and total OQ-45 score (r = 0.6, P < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that personality traits could influence the explicit mental symptoms of the volunteers. Volunteers with traits of anxiety and depression reported a significant impact on their mental symptoms. Conclusions The OQ-45 and PHI scales can be used to screen volunteers with mental symptoms. Inner personality traits could be used to predict the mental symptoms of volunteers in China. Our results might assist organizers of future conferences and games in selecting appropriate university volunteers.

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