Future Directions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Krissy A. Lyon ◽  
Nicola J. Allen

Astrocytes are non-neuronal cells that regulate synapses, neuronal circuits, and behavior. Astrocytes ensheath neuronal synapses to form the tripartite synapse where astrocytes influence synapse formation, function, and plasticity. Beyond the synapse, recent research has revealed that astrocyte influences on the nervous system extend to the modulation of neuronal circuitry and behavior. Here we review recent findings on the active role of astrocytes in behavioral modulation with a focus on in vivo studies, primarily in mice. Using tools to acutely manipulate astrocytes, such as optogenetics or chemogenetics, studies reviewed here have demonstrated a causal role for astrocytes in sleep, memory, sensorimotor behaviors, feeding, fear, anxiety, and cognitive processes like attention and behavioral flexibility. Current tools and future directions for astrocyte-specific manipulation, including methods for probing astrocyte heterogeneity, are discussed. Understanding the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal circuit activity and organismal behavior will be critical toward understanding how nervous system function gives rise to behavior.


2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (2) ◽  
pp. 100981
Author(s):  
Ashitha Gopinath ◽  
Lakshmi Pisharody ◽  
Amishi Popat ◽  
P.V. Nidheesh

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Huiyuan Zhu ◽  
Dexi Bi ◽  
Youhua Zhang ◽  
Cheng Kong ◽  
Jiahao Du ◽  
...  

AbstractThe ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and very-low-carbohydrate diet regimen that mimics the metabolism of the fasting state to induce the production of ketone bodies. The KD has long been established as a remarkably successful dietary approach for the treatment of intractable epilepsy and has increasingly garnered research attention rapidly in the past decade, subject to emerging evidence of the promising therapeutic potential of the KD for various diseases, besides epilepsy, from obesity to malignancies. In this review, we summarize the experimental and/or clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety of the KD in different diseases, and discuss the possible mechanisms of action based on recent advances in understanding the influence of the KD at the cellular and molecular levels. We emphasize that the KD may function through multiple mechanisms, which remain to be further elucidated. The challenges and future directions for the clinical implementation of the KD in the treatment of a spectrum of diseases have been discussed. We suggest that, with encouraging evidence of therapeutic effects and increasing insights into the mechanisms of action, randomized controlled trials should be conducted to elucidate a foundation for the clinical use of the KD.


Author(s):  
Bridget M. Waller ◽  
Eithne Kavanagh ◽  
Jerome Micheletta ◽  
Peter R. Clark ◽  
Jamie Whitehouse

AbstractA wealth of experimental and observational evidence suggests that faces have become increasingly important in the communication system of primates over evolutionary time and that both the static and moveable aspects of faces convey considerable information. Therefore, whenever there is a visual component to any multicomponent signal the face is potentially relevant. However, the role of the face is not always considered in primate multicomponent communication research. We review the literature and make a case for greater focus on the face going forward. We propose that the face can be overlooked for two main reasons: first, due to methodological difficulty. Examination of multicomponent signals in primates is difficult, so scientists tend to examine a limited number of signals in combination. Detailed examination of the subtle and dynamic components of facial signals is particularly hard to achieve in studies of primates. Second, due to a common assumption that the face contains “emotional” content. A priori categorisation of facial behavior as “emotional” ignores the potentially communicative and predictive information present in the face that might contribute to signals. In short, we argue that the face is central to multicomponent signals (and also many multimodal signals) and suggest future directions for investigating this phenomenon.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tze Wei Liew ◽  
Wei Ming Pang ◽  
Meng Chew Leow ◽  
Su-Mae Tan

AbstractEmotional design refers to imbuing a multimedia learning environment with design attributes that promote learners’ positive affect and motivation to enhance learning. One such feature is anthropomorphism, in which human-like attributes are infused into learning elements in a multimedia learning environment. This study examines the affective, motivational, and cognitive effects of incorporating cute and funny human-like images and dialogues into learning objects depicting malware, bots, and servers in an animation conveying a lesson on how a distributed denial-of-service attack occurs. A between-subjects online experiment was conducted in which undergraduates from a large Asian university (n = 70) engaged with either the anthropomorphized or non-anthropomorphized multimedia lesson. The findings partially supported the anthropomorphism effects on learners’ affective-motivational states insofar as the anthropomorphized multimedia lesson evoked a significantly greater change of positive affect but did not differently affect intrinsic motivation and learning outcome than the non-anthropomorphized version. Concerning cognitive load, anthropomorphism led to significantly lower perceived difficulty regarding the learning topic (intrinsic load), which conforms with most emotional design findings. There was a marginal trend in which learners engaged longer with the anthropomorphized than the non-anthropomorphized multimedia lesson. This study offers insights on anthropomorphism in multimedia learning that extends to cultural factors unique to Asian learners and information technology subject domain. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed through the lens of cognitive-affective theory of learning with media, integrated cognitive affective model of learning with multimedia, and cognitive load theory. Future directions concerning anthropomorphism research in the multimedia learning context are addressed in this paper.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
James A. Garnett ◽  
Joseph Atherton

Historically proteins that form highly polymeric and filamentous assemblies have been notoriously difficult to study using high resolution structural techniques. This has been due to several factors that include structural heterogeneity, their large molecular mass, and available yields. However, over the past decade we are now seeing a major shift towards atomic resolution insight and the study of more complex heterogenous samples and in situ/ex vivo examination of multi-subunit complexes. Although supported by developments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (ssNMR) and computational approaches, this has primarily been due to advances in cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The study of eukaryotic microtubules and bacterial pili are good examples, and in this review, we will give an overview of the technical innovations that have enabled this transition and highlight the advancements that have been made for these two systems. Looking to the future we will also describe systems that remain difficult to study and where further technical breakthroughs are required.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Muhammad Tufail ◽  
Changxin Wu

IGF-1Rs enact a significant part in cancer growth and its progress. IGF-1R inhibitors were encouraged in the early trials, but the patients did not benefit due to the unavailability of predictive biomarkers and IGF-1R system complexity. However, the linkage between IGF-1R and cancer was reported three decades ago. This review will shed light on the IGF-1R system, targeting IGF-1R through monoclonal antibodies, reasons behind IGF-1R trial failure and future directions. This study presented that targeting IGF-1R through monoclonal antibodies is still effective in cancer treatment, and there is a need to look for future directions. Cancer patients may benefit from using mAbs that target existing and new cancer targets, evidenced by promising results. It is also essential that the academician, trial experts and pharmaceutical companies play their role in finding a treatment for this deadly disease.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Farkhanda Zafar ◽  
Hasan Ali Khattak ◽  
Moayad Aloqaily ◽  
Rasheed Hussain

Owing to the advancements in communication and computation technologies, the dream of commercialized connected and autonomous cars is becoming a reality. However, among other challenges such as environmental pollution, cost, maintenance, security, and privacy, the ownership of vehicles (especially for Autonomous Vehicles (AV)) is the major obstacle in the realization of this technology at the commercial level. Furthermore, the business model of pay-as-you-go type services further attracts the consumer because there is no need for upfront investment. In this vein, the idea of car-sharing ( aka carpooling) is getting ground due to, at least in part, its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and affordable choice of transportation. Carpooling systems are still in their infancy and face challenges such as scheduling, matching passengers interests, business model, security, privacy, and communication. To date, a plethora of research work has already been done covering different aspects of carpooling services (ranging from applications to communication and technologies); however, there is still a lack of a holistic, comprehensive survey that can be a one-stop-shop for the researchers in this area to, i) find all the relevant information, and ii) identify the future research directions. To fill these research challenges, this paper provides a comprehensive survey on carpooling in autonomous and connected vehicles and covers architecture, components, and solutions, including scheduling, matching, mobility, pricing models of carpooling. We also discuss the current challenges in carpooling and identify future research directions. This survey is aimed to spur further discussion among the research community for the effective realization of carpooling.


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