targeted interventions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Muhammad Chutiyami ◽  
Allen M. Y. Cheong ◽  
Dauda Salihu ◽  
Umar Muhammad Bello ◽  
Dorothy Ndwiga ◽  

ObjectiveThis meta-review aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of overall mental health of healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic.MethodWe conducted a comprehensive literature search on Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and MEDLINE. A predefined eligibility criterion was used to screen the articles. The methodology quality of eligible studies was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for systematic reviews. The data were narratively synthesised in line with the meta-review aim.ResultForty systematic reviews (represented as K = 40), which reported data from 1,828 primary studies (N) and 3,245,768 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The findings from a pooled prevalence indicate that anxiety (16–41%, K = 30, N = 701), depression (14–37%, K = 28, N = 584), and stress/post-traumatic stress disorder (18.6–56.5%, K = 24, N = 327) were the most prevailing COVID-19 pandemic-related mental health conditions affecting healthcare workers. Other reported concerns included insomnia, burnout, fear, obsessive-compulsive disorder, somatization symptoms, phobia, substance abuse, and suicidal thoughts. Considering regions/countries, the highest anxiety was reported in the United-Kingdom [22.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):7–38, N = 4] compared to other countries, while the highest depression was in the Middle-East, (41, 95% CI:16–60, N = 5) and stress in the Eastern Mediterranean region (61.6, 95% CI:56.4–66.8, N = 2) compared to other regions. The most significant risk factors include female gender, younger age, being a nurse, and frontline professional. The most-reported coping strategies include individual/group psychological support, family/relative support, training/orientation, and the adequacy of personal protective equipment.ConclusionIt was concluded that healthcare professionals (nurses, doctors, allied health) have experienced various mental health issues during COVID-19 pandemic. The meta-review, therefore, recommends targeted interventions and health policies that address specific mental health issues to support health professionals worldwide during the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and similar future health crises.Systematic Review Registration, identifier: CRD42021262001.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Beata Gavurova ◽  
Boris Popesko ◽  
Viera Ivankova ◽  
Martin Rigelsky

In the ongoing situation, when the world is dominated by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the development of self-care programs appears to be insufficient, while their role in mental health may be crucial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between self-care activities and depression in the general Slovak population, but also in its individual gender and age categories. This was achieved by validating the self-care screening instrument, assessing differences, and evaluating the associations using quantile regression analysis. The final research sample consisted of 806 participants [males: 314 (39%), females: 492 (61%)] and data were collected through an online questionnaire from February 12, 2021 to February 23, 2021. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) for depression (α = 0.89) and Self-Care Activities Screening Scale (SASS-14) [health consciousness (HC) (α = 0.82), nutrition and physical activity (NPA) (α = 0.75), sleep quality (SLP) (α = 0.82), and interpersonal and intrapersonal coping strategies (IICS) (α = 0.58)] were used as screening measures. Mild depressive symptoms were found in 229 participants (28.41%), moderate depressive symptoms in 154 participants (19.11%), moderately severe depressive symptoms in 60 participants (7.44%) and severe depressive symptoms in 43 participants (5.33%). The main findings revealed the fact that individual self-care activities were associated with depression. This supported the idea that well-practiced self-care activities should be an immediate part of an individual's life in order to reduce depressive symptoms. Sleep quality played an important role, while HC indicated the need for increased attention. Other dimensions of self-care also showed significant results that should not be overlooked. In terms of depression, females and younger individuals need targeted interventions. The supportive educational intervention developed based on the self-care theory can help manage and maintain mental health during a stressful period, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Health policy leaders should focus on health-promoting preventive self-care interventions, as the demand for them increases even more during the pandemic.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Christine Wu Nordahl ◽  
Derek Sayre Andrews ◽  
Patrick Dwyer ◽  
Einat Waizbard-Bartov ◽  
Bibiana Restrepo ◽  

One of the most universally accepted facts about autism is that it is heterogenous. Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have a wide range of behavioral presentations and a variety of co-occurring medical and mental health conditions. The identification of more homogenous subgroups is likely to lead to a better understanding of etiologies as well as more targeted interventions and treatments. In 2006, we initiated the UC Davis MIND Institute Autism Phenome Project (APP) with the overarching goal of identifying clinically meaningful subtypes of autism. This ongoing longitudinal multidisciplinary study now includes over 400 children and involves comprehensive medical, behavioral, and neuroimaging assessments from early childhood through adolescence (2–19 years of age). We have employed several strategies to identify sub-populations within autistic individuals: subgrouping by neural, biological, behavioral or clinical characteristics as well as by developmental trajectories. In this Mini Review, we summarize findings to date from the APP cohort and describe progress made toward identifying meaningful subgroups of autism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Helen Skirrow ◽  
Sara Barnett ◽  
Sadie Bell ◽  
Lucia Riaposova ◽  
Sandra Mounier-Jack ◽  

Abstract Background COVID-19 vaccines are advised for pregnant women in the United Kingdom (UK) however COVID-19 vaccine uptake among pregnant women is inadequate. Methods An online survey and semi-structured interviews were used to investigate pregnant women’s views on COVID-19 vaccine acceptability for themselves when pregnant, not pregnant and for their babies. One thousand one hundred eighty-one women, aged over 16 years, who had been pregnant since 23rd March 2020, were surveyed between 3rd August–11th October 2020. Ten women were interviewed. Results The majority of women surveyed (81.2%) reported that they would ‘definitely’ or were ‘leaning towards’ accepting a COVID-19 vaccine when not pregnant. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was significantly lower during pregnancy (62.1%, p < 0.005) and for their babies (69.9%, p < 0.005). Ethnic minority women were twice as likely to reject a COVID-19 vaccine for themselves when not pregnant, pregnant and for their babies compared to women from White ethnic groups (p < 0.005). Women from lower-income households, aged under 25-years, and from some geographic regions were more likely to reject a COVID-19 vaccine when not pregnant, pregnant and for their babies. Multivariate analysis revealed that income and ethnicity were the main drivers of the observed age and regional differences. Women unvaccinated against pertussis in pregnancy were over four times more likely to reject COVID-19 vaccines when not pregnant, pregnant and for their babies. Thematic analysis of the survey freetext responses and interviews found safety concerns about COVID-19 vaccines were common though wider mistrust in vaccines was also expressed. Trust in vaccines and the health system were also reasons women gave for accepting COVID-19 vaccines. Conclusion Safety information on COVID-19 vaccines must be clearly communicated to pregnant women to provide reassurance and facilitate informed pregnancy vaccine decisions. Targeted interventions to promote COVID-19 vaccine uptake among ethnic minority and lower-income women may be needed.

Emily D. Walden ◽  
Atika Khurana ◽  
Leslie D. Leve ◽  
Lauren E. Lindstrom

Female adolescents with disabilities are at an increased risk for mental health concerns, which can negatively impact their self-determination, making transition to postschool opportunities difficult. We analyzed two waves of survey data from 366 female adolescents with disabilities, recruited from 26 U.S. public high schools, as part of a randomized controlled trial of a career development intervention. Participants with mental health concerns evidenced a slower increase in self-determination over the follow-up period than those without such concerns. Individuals assigned to the intervention condition experienced significant gains in self-determination compared with the control. Findings suggest that mental health concerns can operate as a barrier to growth in self-determination skills among this population, though targeted interventions can help in boosting these skills.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marc De Hert ◽  
Victor Mazereel ◽  
Marc Stroobants ◽  
Livia De Picker ◽  
Kristof Van Assche ◽  

Background: Increasing clinical evidence suggests that people with severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD), are at higher risk of dying from COVID-19. Several systematic reviews examining the association between psychiatric disorders and COVID-19-related mortality have recently been published. Although these reviews have been conducted thoroughly, certain methodological limitations may hinder the accuracy of their research findings.Methods: A systematic literature search, using the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (from inception to July 23, 2021), was conducted for observational studies assessing the risk of death associated with COVID-19 infection in adult patients with pre-existing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, BD, or MDD. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS).Results: Of 1,446 records screened, 13 articles investigating the rates of death in patients with pre-existing SMI were included in this systematic review. Quality assessment scores of the included studies ranged from moderate to high. Most results seem to indicate that patients with SMI, particularly patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, are at significantly higher risk of COVID-19-related mortality, as compared to patients without SMI. However, the extent of the variation in COVID-19-related mortality rates between studies including people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was large because of a low level of precision of the estimated mortality outcome(s) in certain studies. Most studies on MDD and BD did not include specific information on the mood state or disease severity of patients. Due to a lack of data, it remains unknown to what extent patients with BD are at increased risk of COVID-19-related mortality. A variety of factors are likely to contribute to the increased mortality risk of COVID-19 in these patients. These include male sex, older age, somatic comorbidities (particularly cardiovascular diseases), as well as disease-specific characteristics.Conclusion: Methodological limitations hamper the accuracy of COVID-19-related mortality estimates for the main categories of SMIs. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that SMI is associated with excess COVID-19 mortality. Policy makers therefore must consider these vulnerable individuals as a high-risk group that should be given particular attention. This means that targeted interventions to maximize vaccination uptake among these patients are required to address the higher burden of COVID-19 infection in this already disadvantaged group.

Linda R. Jensen

The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) is a leader in the provision of high-quality health and welfare information. Its work program has built a strong evidence base for better decisions that deliver improved health and welfare outcomes. The evolution of the AIHW’s data integration program has exemplified innovation in identifying and addressing key information gaps, as well as responsiveness to opportunities to develop and capture the data required to inform national priorities. The AIHW conducts data integration in partnership with data custodians and specialists in integration and analysis. A linkage project requiring the integration of Australian government data must be undertaken by an accredited integrating authority. The AIHW has met stringent criteria covering project governance, capability, and data management to gain this accreditation. In this capacity, the AIHW is trusted to integrate Australian government data for high-risk research projects. To date, the AIHW’s integration projects have generated improved research outcomes that have identified vulnerable population groups, improved the understanding of health risk factors, and contributed to the development of targeted interventions. These projects have fostered new insights into dementia, disability, health service use, patient experiences of healthcare, and suicide. Upcoming projects aim to further the understanding of interrelationships between determinants of wellbeing.

2022 ◽  
Naima Said Sheikh ◽  
Abdi Gele

Abstract Background: Motivated health workers play an important role in delivering high-quality maternal health services, especially in low-income countries where maternal mortality rates are high, and shortages of human resource for health is prevalent. The aim of this study is to investigate the motivation of maternal health workers in three tertiary hospitals in Mogadishu Somalia. Method: To investigate health worker motivation in Somalia, we used a semi-structured questionnaire that was validated and widely used in Sub-Saharan Africa. Data were collected from 220 health workers across three tertiary hospitals in Mogadishu between February and April 2020. Health worker motivation was measured using seven constructs: general motivation, burnout, job satisfaction, intrinsic job satisfaction, organizational commitment, conscientiousness, timeliness and attendance. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine the predictors of health worker motivation. Results: The study found that male health workers have a higher work motivation, with a mean score of 92.75 (SD 21.31) versus 90.43 (SD 21.61) in women. A significant correlation was found between health workers motivation and being an assistant, nurse, physician, pediatric-assistant, midwife, supervisor and pharmacist. Unexpectedly, the gynecologists and midwives were the least motivated groups among the different professions, with mean scores of 83.63, (SD: 27.41) and 86.95 (SD: 21.08), respectively. Of the aforementioned seven motivation constructs, the highest mean motivation scores (from 1-5) were observed in conscientiousness and intrinsic job satisfaction. Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of targeted interventions that increase the motivation of female health workers, particularly gynecologists and midwives in Somalia. This can be done by providing non-financial incentives, in addition to encouraging their participation in the decision-making process. Further research is needed to investigate the effect of a lack of motivation among gynecologists and midwives on maternal health in Somalia.

2022 ◽  
Sarah E Jackson ◽  
Hazel Cheeseman ◽  
Deborah Arnott ◽  
Robbie Titmarsh ◽  
Jamie Brown

Objectives: To analyse associations between living in social housing and smoking in England and evaluate progress toward reducing disparities in smoking prevalence among residents of social housing compared with other housing types. Design: Nationally-representative, cross-sectional survey between January 2015 and February 2020. Setting: England. Participants: 105,562 adults (≥16y). Primary and secondary outcome measures: Linear and logistic regression were used to analyse associations between living in social housing (vs. other housing types) and smoking status, cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, exposure to smoking by others, motivation to stop smoking, quit attempts, and use of cessation support. Analyses adjusted for sex, age, social grade, region, and survey year. Results: Adults living in social housing had twice the odds of being a smoker (ORadj=2.17, 95%CI 2.08-2.27), and the decline in smoking prevalence between 2015 and 2020 was less pronounced in this high-risk group (-7%; ORadj=0.98, 95%CI 0.96-1.01) than among adults living in other housing types (-24%; ORadj=0.95, 95%CI 0.94-0.96; housing tenure*survey year interaction p=0.020). Smokers living in social housing were more addicted than those in other housing (smoking within 30 minutes of waking: ORadj=1.50, 95%CI 1.39-1.61), but were no less motivated to stop smoking (ORadj=1.06, 95%CI 0.96-1.17) and had higher odds of having made a serious attempt to quit in the past year (ORadj=1.16, 95%CI 1.07-1.25). Among smokers who had tried to quit, those living in social housing had higher odds of using evidence-based cessation support (ORadj=1.22, 95%CI 1.07-1.39) but lower odds of remaining abstinent (ORadj=0.63, 95%CI 0.52-0.76). Conclusions: There remain stark inequalities in smoking and quitting behaviour by housing tenure in England, with declines in prevalence stalling between 2015 and 2020 despite progress in the rest of the population. In the absence of targeted interventions to boost quitting among social housing residents, inequalities in health are likely to worsen.

M. N. Ramli ◽  
A. R. Abdul Rasam ◽  
M. A. Rosly

Abstract. A well-developed healthcare system, decent access to clean water and sanitation, and programmes to eliminate poverty and build modern infrastructure are essential components to create healthier Malaysia's population. Non-communicable diseases currently account for most of the mortality and morbidity, although communicable diseases such as dengue fever, avian flu and covid-19 still pose a threat. The World Health Organization (WHO) identified COVID-19 is a rare pneumonia disease that originated in Wuhan, on January 12, 2020, before it became an outbreak in all countries including Malaysia. The requirement of a precise mapping and Cartography for the accurate disease mapping and data management are crucial due to a precise map gives higher resolution of the data and for more specific data analysis, interpretation and decision making process. In Malaysia, there no specific report on precise mapping for health applications, and it is therefore this paper is to identify the potential criteria and factors needed for precise health mapping applications. A precise health mapping is essential to create a precise risk map towards the surveillance and signal detection, predicting future risk, targeted interventions, and understanding disease phenomena.

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