scholarly journals Rapid reduction of tidal amplitude due to form drag in a narrow channel

2021 ◽  
Vol 213 ◽  
pp. 104299
Rachel M. Horwitz ◽  
Stephanne Taylor ◽  
Youyu Lu ◽  
Jean-Philippe Paquin ◽  
Douglas Schillinger ◽  
William P. Wergin ◽  
P. F. Bell ◽  
Rufus L. Chaney

In dicotyledons, Fe3+ must be reduced to Fe2+ before uptake and transport of this essential macronutrient can occur. Ambler et al demonstrated that reduction along the root could be observed by the formation of a stain, Prussian blue (PB), Fe4 [Fe(CN)6]3 n H2O (where n = 14-16). This stain, which is an insoluble precipitate, forms at the reduction site when the nutrient solution contains Fe3+ and ferricyanide. In 1972, Chaney et al proposed a model which suggested that the Fe3+ reduction site occurred outside the cell membrane; however, no physical evidence to support the model was presented at that time. A more recent study using the PB stain indicates that rapid reduction of Fe3+ occurs in a region of the root containing young root hairs. Furthermore the most pronounced activity occurs in plants that are deficient in Fe. To more precisely localize the site of Fe3+ reduction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were utilized to examine the distribution of the PB precipitate that was induced to form in roots.

Harsha S. Nagarajarao ◽  
Chandra P. Ojha ◽  
Archana Kedar ◽  
Debabrata Mukherjee

: Cryptogenic stroke and its relation to the Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) is a long-debated topic. Recent clinical trials have unequivocally established the relationship between cryptogenic strokes and paradoxical embolism across the PFO. This slit-like communication exists in everyone before birth, but most often closes shortly after birth. PFO may persist as a narrow channel of communication between the right and left atria in approximately 25-27% of adults. : In this review, we examine the clinical relevance of the PFO with analysis of the latest trials evaluating catheter-based closure of PFO’s for cryptogenic stroke. We also review the current evidence examining the use of antiplatelet medications versus anticoagulants for stroke prevention in those patients with PFO who do not qualify for closure per current guidelines.

2020 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Hiroyuki Ikemoto ◽  
Takafumi Miyanaga

AbstractIn this review, we make a survey of the structure studies for the chalcogen elements and several chalcogenides in liquid, amorphous and nanosized state by using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The chalcogen elements have hierarchic structures; the chain structure constructed with the strong covalent bond as a primary structure, and the weaker interaction between chains as a secondary one. Existence of these two kinds of interactions induces exotic behaviors in the liquid, amorphous and nanosized state of the chalcogen and chalcogenides. XAFS is a powerful structure analysis technique for multi-element systems and the disordered materials, so it is suitable for the study of such as liquid, amorphous and nanosized mixtures. In section 2, the structures for the liquid state are discussed, which show the interesting semiconductor-metal transition depending on their temperatures and components. In section 3, the structure for the amorphous states are discussed. Especially, some of chalcogens and chalcogenides present the photostructural change, which is important industrial application. In section 4, the structures of nanosized state, nanoparticles and isolated chain confined into the narrow channel, are discussed. The studies of the nanoparticle and the isolated chain reveal the alternative role between the intrachain covalent bonds and the interchain interaction.

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