Transition State Interactions in a Promiscuous Enzyme: Sulfate and Phosphate Monoester Hydrolysis byPseudomonas aeruginosaArylsulfatase
ABSTRACTPseudomonas aeruginosaarylsulfatase (PAS) hydrolyses sulfate and, promiscuously, phosphate monoesters. Enzyme-catalyzed sulfate transfer is crucial to a wide variety of biological processes, but detailed studies of the mechanistic contributions to its catalysis are lacking. We present an investigation based on linear free energy relationships (LFERs) and kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) of PAS and active site mutants that suggest a key role for leaving group (LG) stabilization. In LFERs wild type PAS has a much less negative Br0nsted coefficient (βleaving groupobs-Enz= −0.33) than the uncatalyzed reaction (βleavingroupobs= −1.81). This situation is diminished when cationic active site groups are exchanged for alanine. The considerable degree of bond breaking during the TS is evidenced by an18ObridgeKIE of 1.0088. LFER and KIE data for several active site mutants point to leaving group stabilization by active-site lysine K375, in cooperation with histidine H211.15N KIEs combined with an increased sensitivity to leaving group ability of the sulfatase activity in neat D2O (Δβleaving groupH-D= +0.06) suggest that the mechanism for S-Obridgebond fission shifts, with decreasing leaving group ability, from charge compensation via Lewis acid interactions towards direct proton donation.18OnonbridgeKIEs indicate that the TS for PAS-catalyzed sulfate monoester hydrolysis has a significantly more associative character compared to the uncatalyzed reaction, while PAS-catalyzed phosphate monoester hydrolysis does not show this shift. This difference in enzyme-catalyzed TSs appears to be the major factor favoring specificity toward sulfate over phosphate in this promiscuous hydrolase, since other features are either too similar (uncatalyzed TS) or inherently favor phosphate (charge).