state structure
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Elisabeth Aigeldinger ◽  
Lilliana Brandao ◽  
Troy Powell ◽  
Alaina C. Hartnett ◽  
Rui Sun ◽  

The study of quadruple bonds between transition metals, in particular those of dimolybdenum, has revealed much about the two-electron bond. The solid-state structure of the quadruple-bonded dimolybdenum(II) complex tetrakis(μ-4-trifluoromethylbenzoato-κ2 O:O′)dimolybdenum(II) 0.762-pentane 0.238-tetrahydrofuran solvate, [Mo2(p-O2CC6H4CF3)4·2THF]·0.762C5H12·0.238C4H8O or [Mo2(C8H4F3O2)4(C4H8O)2]·0.762C5H12·0.238C4H8O is reported. The complex crystallizes within a triclinic cell and low symmetry (P\overline{1}) results from the intercalated pentane/THF solvent molecules. The paddlewheel structure at 100 K has inversion symmetry and comprises four bridging carboxylate ligands encases the Mo2(II,II) core that is characterized by two axially coordinated THF molecules and an Mo—Mo distance of 2.1098 (7) Å.


The success of implementing a state economic policy operating under the conditions of a particular economic model depends on the diversity of aspects. The social one is the most important among them. The social aspect of the economic system and politics is oriented first and foremost to human resources, which is the base of the social-economic system. In this article the interdisciplinary approach has been identified as a priority in the field of study of the essence and development of new types of socio-economic systems, considering the whole complex of factors of their environment of formation. The existence of a close interconnection of economic and social aspects has been determined: the influence of non-economic, including social, determinants on the development and functioning of innovative models of the state structure; ensuring social development through existing economic shifts. It's concluded that an interdisciplinary approach in analyzing the concept of sustainable development and finding ways of its implementation is a necessity.

RSC Advances ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 1788-1796
Saba Mehreen ◽  
Aman Ullah ◽  
Humaira Nadeem ◽  
Necmi Dege ◽  
Muhammad Moazzam Naseer

The phenoxy pendant isatins were observed to be highly potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase. In addition, the solid-state structure of a phenoxy pendant isatin showed an intriguing 1D-supramolecular self-assembled structure.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 140-148
Taha Shabbir ◽  
Abdul Shakoor Chandio ◽  
Syed Shuja Uddin ◽  
Asim Ali

Pakistan's federalism problem dates all the way back to the establishment of the republic. Pakistan was established during many problems, many of which involved the state's government and administration. After Pakistan's inception, Federalism has been recognized as a political structure. The Muslim League was Pakistan's democratic body, and it called for the provinces of United India to have complete provincial autonomy. In the other side, the Congress favored a moderate federation. Due to the Muslim League's extensive past and tradition, it has been forced to recognize Federalism as a state system. Karachi, a major commercial center in Sindh, was annexed by the federal government and incorporated into its region. As a consequence of this undemocratic act, Sindh's ministry was dissolved, and Karachi was put under federal administration. The smaller provinces were compelled to form One Unit as a result of this development. The One-unit structure scrapped Sindh's territorial position and fundamentally altered its demography. After Bengal's dismemberment, Punjab became the only ruling state, controlling the state structure. Sindh remained marginalized in this province. Sindh has always met with the same fate. Furthermore, Pakistan's constitutions made no provision for Sindh's provincial hegemony. This thesis makes an empirical attempt to examine the historical connection between the Centre and Sindh.

Artem Arturovich Serdyukov

The purpose of the research was to study the fundamental provisions of the Constitution of India and the amendments made to it, which regulate the constitutional foundations and principles of the formation of a sovereign, secular, and democratic state. In addition, the article discusses the constitutional provisions relating to the acquisition of independence, the freedom of India, the formal establishment and consolidation of the fundamental rights and freedoms of its citizens and the abolition of the institution of untouchability. The study of the role and importance of the political and legal views of the leader of the national liberation movement, the philosopher and jurist Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in shaping the constitutional foundations and state structure of India is of some interest. The author used a complex of scientific methods to achieve the objective. It is concluded that the achievement of India's political independence, the declaration of equal rights and freedoms and the abolition of the untouchable caste in the state Constitution, is a significant contribution to the development of this country and a rapid step in increasing India's importance in the world.

Austin Alexander Tomlinson ◽  
Nicola Wilkin

Abstract Phyllotaxis is a botanical classification scheme that can describe regular lattice-like structures on cylinders, often as a set of helical chains. In this letter, we study the general properties of repulsive particles on cylindrical geometries and demonstrate that this leads to a model which allows one to predict the minimum energy configuration for any given combination of system parameters. We are able to predict a sequence of transitions between phyllotactic ground states at zero temperature. Our results are understood in terms of a newly identified global scale invariant, \(\alpha\), dependent on circumference and density, which \emph{alone} determines the ground state structure. This representation provides a framework within which to understand and create lattice structures on more complex curved surfaces, which occur in both biological and nanoscale experimental settings.

Synthesis ◽  
2021 ◽  
Kirill Nikitin ◽  
Anna C. Vetter ◽  
Helge Müller-Bunz ◽  
Jimmy Muldoon

AbstractWe have earlier shown how the Wittig chemistry can be done using novel Eigenbase phosphonium carboxylate reagents. Here we discuss the phenomenon of ion pairing, their solution tautomerism, solid-state structure, and mechanistic aspects of olefination. The results point to a complex process involving unfamiliar H-bond-driven ion-pair equilibria followed by standard Wittig reaction steps.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
pp. 61-76
Abiha Zahra ◽  
Geert Bouckaert

State structures are constantly adjusted for resilience in a social world full of external and internal challenges. Structural shifts or reforms are comprehensively explored in the public management literature; though little is known regarding the dynamics of reforms in a developing context like Pakistan and that too from a longitudinal perspective. This research documents the key adjustments in the state structure and analyzes the changing dynamics of reform mechanisms at the federal level of Pakistan in a period of over seven decades. Both civilian and military led governments made continuous adjustments in state structures with shifting choices in reform mechanisms. With dominance of hierarchy type mechanisms over the years, the new trends in reforms around the world including market and network type mechanisms were also brought in for a resilient system. Markets and hierarchies were mostly blended in with hierarchies to create state specific reform patterns. Developing countries pick up international trends in reforms imported from West; however, the way they are influenced by the role of contextual actors (both political and non-political).

2021 ◽  
Daniel Ess ◽  
Nathan Morgan ◽  
Steven Maley ◽  
Doo-Hyun Kwon ◽  
Michael Webster-Gardiner ◽  

One approach to selectively generate 1-hexene is through ethylene trimerization using highly active Cr N-phosphinoamidine catalysts ((P,N)Cr). Depending on the ligand, (P,N)Cr catalysts can either generate nearly pure 1-hexene or form 1-hexene with significant mixtures of other C6 mass products, for example methylenecyclopentane. Here we report DFT transition state modeling examining 1-hexene catalysis pathways as well as pathways that lead to alternative C6 mass products. This provided qualitative and semi-quantitative modeling of the experimental 1-hexene purity values for several (P,N)Cr catalysts. Consistent with previous computational studies, the key 1-hexene purity-determining transition states were determined to be β-hydrogen transfer structures from the metallacycloheptane intermediate. The origin of selectivity for these (P,N)Cr catalysts can be attributed to steric effects in the transition-state structure with coordinated ethylene that leads to C6 impurities.

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