charge compensation
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2022 ◽  
Hyojung Kim ◽  
Jongwoo Park ◽  
Taeyoung Khim ◽  
Hyuncheol Hwang ◽  
Jungmin Park ◽  

Abstract Flexible devices fabricated with polyimide (PI) substrate are crucial for foldable, rollable, or stretchable products in various applications. However, inherent technical challenges remain in mobile charge induced device instabilities and image retention, significantly hindering future technologies. We introduced a new barrier material, SiCOH, into the backplane of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a–IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that were then implemented into production-level flexible panels. We found that the SiCOH layer effectively compensates the surface charging induced by fluorine ions at the interface between the PI substrate and the barrier layer under bias stress, thereby preventing abnormal positive Vth shifts and image disturbance. The a–IGZO TFTs, metal-insulator-metal (MIM), and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors with the SiCOH layer demonstrate reliable device performance, Vth shifts, and capacitance changes with an increase in the gate bias stress. A flexible device with SiCOH enables the suppression of abnormal Vth shifts associated with PI and plays a vital role in the degree of image sticking phenomenon. This work provides new inspirations to creating much improved process integrity and paves the way for expediting versatile form-factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 241 ◽  
pp. 118504
Zhongxu Han ◽  
Shuchen Lü ◽  
Qingyu Meng ◽  
Mengsi Sun ◽  
Yandong Ren

2022 ◽  
Vol 572 ◽  
pp. 151338
Aram Hong ◽  
Sang Ju Lee ◽  
Chang Min Choi ◽  
Ji Young Baek ◽  
Myoung Choul Choi

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 4439
Rudolf Kiefer ◽  
Fred Elhi ◽  
Anna-Liisa Peikolainen ◽  
Tarmo Tamm

The trend across the whole of society is to focus on natural and/or biodegradable materials such as cellulose (Cell) over synthetic polymers. Among other usage scenarios, Cell can be combined with electroactive components such as multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) to form composites, such as Cell-CNT fibers, for applications in actuators, sensors, and energy storage devices. In this work, we aim to show that by changing the potential window, qualitative multifunctionality of the composites can be invoked, in both electromechanical response as well as energy storage capability. Cell-CNT fibers were investigated in different potential ranges (0.8 V to −0.3 V, 0.55 V to −0.8 V, 1 V to −0.8 V, and 1.5 V to −0.8 V), revealing the transfer from cation-active to anion-active as the potential window shifted towards more positive potentials. Moreover, increasing the driving frequency also shifts the mode from cation- to anion-active. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were conducted to determine the ion species participating in charge compensation under different conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (22) ◽  
pp. 12360
Piotr Bełdowski ◽  
Maciej Przybyłek ◽  
Przemysław Raczyński ◽  
Andra Dedinaite ◽  
Krzysztof Górny ◽  

The lubrication mechanism in synovial fluid and joints is not yet fully understood. Nevertheless, intermolecular interactions between various neutral and ionic species including large macromolecular systems and simple inorganic ions are the key to understanding the excellent lubrication performance. An important tool for characterizing the intermolecular forces and their structural consequences is molecular dynamics. Albumin is one of the major components in synovial fluid. Its electrostatic properties, including the ability to form molecular complexes, are closely related to pH, solvation, and the presence of ions. In the context of synovial fluid, it is relevant to describe the possible interactions between albumin and hyaluronate, taking into account solution composition effects. In this study, the influence of Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ ions on human serum albumin–hyaluronan interactions were examined using molecular dynamics tools. It was established that the presence of divalent cations, and especially Ca2+, contributes mostly to the increase of the affinity between hyaluronan and albumin, which is associated with charge compensation in negatively charged hyaluronan and albumin. Furthermore, the most probable binding sites were structurally and energetically characterized. The indicated moieties exhibit a locally positive charge which enables hyaluronate binding (direct and water mediated).

2021 ◽  
Shilpi Chaurasia ◽  
Julien Y Dutheil

Compensating substitutions happen when one mutation is advantageously selected because it restores the loss of fitness induced by a previous deleterious mutation. How frequent such mutations occur in evolution and what is the structural and functional context permitting their emergence remain open questions. We built an atlas of intra-protein compensatory substitutions using a phylogenetic approach and a dataset of 1,630 bacterial protein families for which high-quality sequence alignments and experimentally derived protein structures were available. We identified more than 51,000 positions coevolving by the mean of predicted compensatory mutations. Using the evolutionary and structural properties of the analyzed positions, we demonstrate that compensatory mutations are scarce (typically only a few in the protein history) but widespread (the majority of proteins experienced at least one). Typical coevolving residues are evolving slowly, are located in the protein core outside secondary structure motifs, and are more often in contact than expected by chance, even after accounting for their evolutionary rate and solvent exposure. An exception to this general scheme are residues coevolving for charge compensation, which are evolving faster than non-coevolving sites, in contradiction with predictions from simple coevolutionary models, but similar to stem pairs in RNA. While sites with a significant pattern of coevolution by compensatory mutations are rare, the comparative analysis of hundreds of structures ultimately permits a better understanding of the link between the three-dimensional structure of a protein and its fitness landscape.

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