increased sensitivity
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2022 ◽  
Joanna L Spencer-Segal ◽  
Swapnil Gavade ◽  
Qiang Wei ◽  
Colin Johnston ◽  
Savannah Kounelis ◽  

Stress hormone signaling via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulates vulnerability to stress-related disorders, but whether GR influences how the brain encodes contextual experience is unknown. Mice with lifelong GR overexpression in forebrain glutamatergic neurons (GRov) show increased sensitivity to environmental stimuli. This phenotype is developmentally programmed and associated with profound changes in hippocampal gene expression. We hypothesized that GR overexpression influences hippocampal encoding of experiences. To test our hypothesis, we performed in vivo microendoscopic calcium imaging of 1359 dorsal CA1 pyramidal cells in freely behaving male and female WT and GRov mice during exploration of a novel open field. We compared calcium amplitude and event rate as well as sensitivity to center location and mobility between genotypes. GRov neurons exhibited higher average calcium activity than WT neurons in the novel open field. While most neurons showed sensitivity to center location and/or mobility, GRov neurons were more likely to be sensitive to center location and less likely to be sensitive to mobility, as compared to WT neurons. More than one-third of behavior-selective GRov neurons were uniquely sensitive to location without mobility sensitivity; these uniquely center-sensitive neurons were rare in WT. We conclude that dorsal CA1 pyramidal cells in GRov mice show increased activity in a novel environment and preferentially encode emotionally salient behavior. This heightened sensitivity to a novel environment and preferential encoding of emotionally salient elements of experience could underlie differential stress vulnerability in humans with increased glucocorticoid sensitivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kinga Gecse ◽  
Dóra Dobos ◽  
Csaba Sándor Aranyi ◽  
Attila Galambos ◽  
Daniel Baksa ◽  

AbstractAltered periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) functional connectivity contributes to brain hyperexcitability in migraine. Although tryptophan modulates neurotransmission in PAG projections through its metabolic pathways, the effect of plasma tryptophan on PAG functional connectivity (PAG-FC) in migraine has not been investigated yet. In this study, using a matched case-control design PAG-FC was measured during a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging session in migraine without aura patients (n = 27) and healthy controls (n = 27), and its relationship with plasma tryptophan concentration (TRP) was assessed. In addition, correlations of PAG-FC with age at migraine onset, migraine frequency, trait-anxiety and depressive symptoms were tested and the effect of TRP on these correlations was explored. Our results demonstrated that migraineurs had higher TRP compared to controls. In addition, altered PAG-FC in regions responsible for fear-cascade and pain modulation correlated with TRP only in migraineurs. There was no significant correlation in controls. It suggests increased sensitivity to TRP in migraine patients compared to controls. Trait-anxiety and depressive symptoms correlated with PAG-FC in migraine patients, and these correlations were modulated by TRP in regions responsible for emotional aspects of pain processing, but TRP did not interfere with processes that contribute to migraine attack generation or attack frequency.

PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12750
Supharada Tessiri ◽  
Anchalee Techasen ◽  
Sarinya Kongpetch ◽  
Achira Namjan ◽  
Watcharin Loilome ◽  

Background Genetic alterations in ARID1A were detected at a high frequency in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Growing evidence indicates that the loss of ARID1A expression leads to activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway and increasing sensitivity of ARID1A-deficient cells for treatment with the PI3K/AKT inhibitor. Therefore, we investigated the association between genetic alterations of ARID1A and the PI3K/AKT pathway and evaluated the effect of AKT inhibition on ARID1A-deficient CCA cells. Methods Alterations of ARID1A, PI3K/AKT pathway-related genes, clinicopathological data and overall survival of 795 CCA patients were retrieved from cBio Cancer Genomics Portal (cBioPortal) databases. The association between genetic alterations and clinical data were analyzed. The effect of the AKT inhibitor (MK-2206) on ARID1A-deficient CCA cell lines and stable ARID1A-knockdown cell lines was investigated. Cell viability, apoptosis, and expression of AKT signaling were analyzed using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Western blots, respectively. Results The analysis of a total of 795 CCA samples revealed that ARID1A alterations significantly co-occurred with mutations of EPHA2 (p < 0.001), PIK3CA (p = 0.047), and LAMA1 (p = 0.024). Among the EPHA2 mutant CCA tumors, 82% of EPHA2 mutant tumors co-occurred with ARID1A truncating mutations. CCA tumors with ARID1A and EPHA2 mutations correlated with better survival compared to tumors with ARID1A mutations alone. We detected that 30% of patients with PIK3CA driver missense mutations harbored ARID1A-truncated mutations and 60% of LAMA1-mutated CCA co-occurred with truncating mutations of ARID1A. Interestingly, ARID1A-deficient CCA cell lines and ARID1A-knockdown CCA cells led to increased sensitivity to treatment with MK-2206 compared to the control. Treatment with MK-2206 induced apoptosis in ARID1A-knockdown KKU-213A and HUCCT1 cell lines and decreased the expression of pAKTS473 and mTOR. Conclusion These findings suggest a dependency of ARID1A-deficient CCA tumors with the activation of the PI3K/AKT-pathway, and that they may be more vulnerable to selective AKT pathway inhibitors which can be used therapeutically.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-216990
Virve I Enne ◽  
Alp Aydin ◽  
Rossella Baldan ◽  
Dewi R Owen ◽  
Hollian Richardson ◽  

BackgroundCulture-based microbiological investigation of hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP or VAP) is insensitive, with aetiological agents often unidentified. This can lead to excess antimicrobial treatment of patients with susceptible pathogens, while those with resistant bacteria are treated inadequately for prolonged periods. Using PCR to seek pathogens and their resistance genes directly from clinical samples may improve therapy and stewardship.MethodsSurplus routine lower respiratory tract samples were collected from intensive care unit patients about to receive new or changed antibiotics for hospital-onset lower respiratory tract infections at 15 UK hospitals. Testing was performed using the BioFire FilmArray Pneumonia Panel (bioMérieux) and Unyvero Pneumonia Panel (Curetis). Concordance analysis compared machine and routine microbiology results, while Bayesian latent class (BLC) analysis estimated the sensitivity and specificity of each test, incorporating information from both PCR panels and routine microbiology.FindingsIn 652 eligible samples; PCR identified pathogens in considerably more samples compared with routine microbiology: 60.4% and 74.2% for Unyvero and FilmArray respectively vs 44.2% by routine microbiology. PCR tests also detected more pathogens per sample than routine microbiology. For common HAP/VAP pathogens, FilmArray had sensitivity of 91.7%–100.0% and specificity of 87.5%–99.5%; Unyvero had sensitivity of 50.0%–100.0%%, and specificity of 89.4%–99.0%. BLC analysis indicated that, compared with PCR, routine microbiology had low sensitivity, ranging from 27.0% to 69.4%.InterpretationConventional and BLC analysis demonstrated that both platforms performed similarly and were considerably more sensitive than routine microbiology, detecting potential pathogens in patient samples reported as culture negative. The increased sensitivity of detection realised by PCR offers potential for improved antimicrobial prescribing.

2022 ◽  
Sarah Anne Sauvé ◽  
Jeremy Marozeau ◽  
Benjamin Zendel

Auditory stream segregation, or separating sounds into their respective sources, and tracking them over time is a fundamental auditory ability. Previous research has separately explored the impacts of aging and musicianship on the ability to separate and follow auditory streams. The current study evaluated the simultaneous effects of age and musicianship on auditory streaming induced by three physical features: intensity, spectral envelope and temporal envelope. In the first study, older and younger musicians and non-musicians with normal hearing identified deviants in a four-note melody interleaved with distractors that were more or less similar to the melody in terms of intensity, spectral envelope and temporal envelope. In the second study, older and younger musicians and non-musicians participated in a dissimilarity rating paradigm with pairs of melodies that differed along the same three features. Results suggested that auditory streaming skills are maintained in older adults but that older adults rely on intensity more than younger adults while musicianship is associated with increased sensitivity to spectral and temporal envelope, acoustic features that are typically less effective for stream segregation, particularly in older adults.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 688
Giorgio Santoni ◽  
Consuelo Amantini ◽  
Massimo Nabissi ◽  
Antonietta Arcella ◽  
Federica Maggi ◽  

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant glioma with an extremely poor prognosis. It is characterized by high vascularization and its growth depends on the formation of new blood vessels. We have previously demonstrated that TRPML2 mucolipin channel expression increases with the glioma pathological grade. Herein by ddPCR and Western blot we found that the silencing of TRPML2 inhibits expression of the VEGFA/Notch2 angiogenic pathway. Moreover, the VEGFA/Notch2 expression increased in T98 and U251 cells stimulated with the TRPML2 agonist, ML2-SA1, or by enforced-TRPML2 levels. In addition, changes in TRPML2 expression or ML2-SA1-induced stimulation, affected Notch2 activation and VEGFA release. An increased invasion capability, associated with a reduced VEGF/VEGFR2 expression and increased vimentin and CD44 epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in siTRPML2, but not in enforced-TRPML2 or ML2-SA1-stimulated glioma cells, was demonstrated. Furthermore, an increased sensitivity to Doxorubicin cytotoxicity was demonstrated in siTRPML2, whereas ML2-SA1-treated GBM cells were more resistant. The role of proteasome in Cathepsin B-dependent and -independent pRB degradation in siTRPML2 compared with siGLO cells was studied. Finally, through Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that high TRPML2 mRNA expression strongly correlates with short survival in GBM patients, supporting TRPML2 as a negative prognostic factor in GBM patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Iris van der Lijn ◽  
Gera A. de Haan ◽  
Famke Huizinga ◽  
Fleur E. van der Feen ◽  
A. Wijnand F. Rutgers ◽  

Background: Scientific research increasingly focuses on visual symptoms of people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, this mostly involves functional measures, whereas self-reported data are equally important for guiding clinical care. Objective: This review sprovides an overview of the nature and prevalence of self-reported visual complaints by people with PD, compared to healthy controls. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed. Studies from three databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, and Web of Science) were screened for eligibility. Only studies that reported results of visual self-reports in people with idiopathic PD were included. Results: One hundred and thirty-nine eligible articles were analyzed. Visual complaints ranged from function-related complaints (e.g., blurred vision, double vision, increased sensitivity to light or changes in contrast sensitivity) to activity-related complaints (e.g., difficulty reading, reaching, or driving). Visual complaints were more prevalent in people with PD compared to healthy controls. The presence of visual complaints leads to a reduced quality of life (QoL). Increased prevalence and severity of visual complaints in people with PD are related to longer disease duration, higher disease severity, and off-state. Conclusion: A large proportion of people with PD have visual complaints, which negatively affect QoL. Complaints are diverse in nature, and specific and active questioning by clinicians is advised to foster timely recognition, acknowledgement, and management of these complaints.

Jihee Sohn ◽  
Jelena Milosevic ◽  
Thomas Brouse ◽  
Najihah Aziz ◽  
Jenna Elkhoury ◽  

Barth syndrome is an inherited X-linked disorder that leads to cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy and neutropenia. These symptoms result from the loss of function of the enzyme TAFAZZIN, a transacylase located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that is responsible for the final steps of cardiolipin production. The link between defective cardiolipin maturation and neutropenia remains unclear. To address potential mechanisms of neutropenia, we examined myeloid progenitor development within the fetal liver of TAFAZZIN knock-out animals as well as within the adult bone marrow of wild-type recipients transplanted with TAFAZZIN KO hematopoietic stem cells. We also used the ER Hoxb8 system of conditional immortalization to establish a new murine model system for the ex vivo study of TAFAZZIN-deficient neutrophils. The TAFAZZIN KO cells demonstrated the expected dramatic differences in cardiolipin maturation that result from a lack of TAFAZZIN enzyme activity. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not identify any significant differences in neutrophil development or neutrophil function across a variety of assays including phagocytosis, and the production of cytokines or reactive oxygen species. However, transcriptomic analysis of the TAFAZZIN-deficient neutrophil progenitors demonstrated an upregulation of markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress and confirmatory testing demonstrated that the TAFAZZIN-deficient cells had increased sensitivity to certain ER stress mediated and non ER stress mediated triggers of apoptosis. While the link between increased sensitivity to apoptosis and the variably penetrant neutropenia phenotype seen in some Barth syndrome patients remains to be clarified, our studies and new model system set a foundation for further investigation.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 175
Lyvianne Decourtye-Espiard ◽  
Nicola Bougen-Zhukov ◽  
Tanis Godwin ◽  
Tom Brew ◽  
Emily Schulpen ◽  

Inactivating germline mutations in the CDH1 gene (encoding the E-cadherin protein) are the genetic hallmark of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), and somatic CDH1 mutations are an early event in the development of sporadic diffuse gastric cancer (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). In this study, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were tested for their ability to preferentially inhibit the growth of human cell lines (MCF10A and NCI-N87) and murine organoids lacking CDH1 expression. CDH1−/− breast and gastric cells were more sensitive to the pan-HDAC inhibitors entinostat, pracinostat, mocetinostat and vorinostat than wild-type cells, with an elevated growth inhibition that was, in part, attributable to increased apoptosis. CDH1-null cells were also sensitive to more class-specific HDAC inhibitors, but compared to the pan-inhibitors, these effects were less robust to genetic background. Increased sensitivity to entinostat was also observed in gastric organoids with both Cdh1 and Tp53 deletions. However, the deletion of Tp53 largely abrogated the sensitivity of the Cdh1-null organoids to pracinostat and mocetinostat. Finally, entinostat enhanced Cdh1 expression in heterozygous Cdh1+/− murine organoids. In conclusion, entinostat is a promising drug for the chemoprevention and/or treatment of HDGC and may also be beneficial for the treatment of sporadic CDH1-deficient cancers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Xiaojie Liu ◽  
Minnan Zhao ◽  
Xue Sun ◽  
Zhenzhen Meng ◽  
Xiaojing Bai ◽  

Solid tumors are usually associated with extracellular acidosis due to their increased dependence on glycolysis and poor vascularization. Cancer cells gradually become adapted to acidic microenvironment and even acquire increased aggressiveness. They are resistant to apoptosis but exhibit increased autophagy that is essential for their survival. We here show that NF-κB, a master regulator of cellular responses to stress, is upregulated in colorectal cancer cells adapted to acidosis (CRC-AA). NF-κB is more relied upon for survival in CRC-AA than in their parental cells and drives a robust antioxidant response. Supplementation of antioxidant abolishes the increased sensitivity of CRC-AA to NF-κB inhibition or depletion, suggesting that NF-κB supports the survival of CRC-AA by maintaining redox homeostasis. Because SQSTM1/p62 is known to mediate the selective autophagy of GATA4 that augments NF-κB function, we tested whether the enhanced autophagic flux and consequently the reduction of SQSTM1/p62 in CRC-AA cells could activate the GATA4-NF-κB axis. Indeed, GATA4 is upregulated in CRC-AA cells and augments the NF-κB activity that underlies the increased expression of cytokines, inhibition of apoptosis, and reduction of reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, secretory factors derived from HCT15-AA cells, the soluble ICAM-1 in particular, also possess antioxidant cytoprotective effect against acidic stress. Together, our results demonstrate a prosurvival role of the p62-restricted GATA4-NF-κB axis in cancer cells adapted to acidic microenvironment.

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