scholarly journals Immune Skew of Circulating Follicular Helper T Cells Associates With Myasthenia Gravis Severity

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. e945
Shinji Ashida ◽  
Hirofumi Ochi ◽  
Mio Hamatani ◽  
Chihiro Fujii ◽  
Kimitoshi Kimura ◽  

ObjectiveTo clarify functional alterations of follicular helper T cells (Tfh) in myasthenia gravis (MG) because Tfh play important roles in helping B cells generate antibody-producing cells.MethodsA total of 24 immunotherapy-naive patients with anti–acetylcholine receptor (AchR) antibody–positive MG and 18 age-matched healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled. Samples from 6 patients were available for posttreatment analysis. Subsets of circulating Tfh (cTfh) and B cells were identified by flow cytometry analysis of surface molecules. Cytokine production by isolated cTfh subsets from 5 patients with MG and 5 HS was measured in vitro. Analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the frequency of cTfh subsets and that of plasmablasts and between cTfh subsets and the quantitative MG score.ResultscTfh increased with elevated expression of inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS) in patients with MG. cTfh shifted to Th2 and Th17 over Th1 in MG. ICOShighcTfh produced significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-21, IL-4, and IL-17A than ICOSlow cTfh only in patients with MG. The frequency of cTfh within CD4 T cells was more closely associated with disease severity than the serum anti-AchR antibody titer and frequency of plasmablasts within B cells. Abnormalities of cTfh were improved after immunotherapy in parallel with clinical improvement.ConclusionsAlternation of cTfh is a key feature in the development of MG and may become a biomarker for disease severity and therapeutic efficacy.Classification of EvidenceThis study provides Class II evidence that the level of cTfh is associated with disease severity in patients with MG.

2016 ◽  
Vol 197 (7) ◽  
pp. 2610-2617 ◽  
Cun-Jin Zhang ◽  
Ye Gong ◽  
Wenli Zhu ◽  
Yuan Qi ◽  
Chun-Sheng Yang ◽  

2011 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 519-520 ◽  
Julia I Ellyard ◽  
Carola G Vinuesa

2019 ◽  
Vol 221 (1) ◽  
pp. 122-126 ◽  
Ana Godinho-Santos ◽  
Russell B Foxall ◽  
Ana V Antão ◽  
Bárbara Tavares ◽  
Tiago Ferreira ◽  

Abstract Follicular helper T cells (Tfh), CD4 lymphocytes critical for efficient antibody responses, have been shown to be key human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 reservoirs. Human immunodeficiency virus-2 infection represents a unique naturally occurring model for investigating Tfh role in HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, given its slow rate of CD4 decline, low to undetectable viremia, and high neutralizing antibody titers throughout the disease course. In this study, we investigated, for the first time, Tfh susceptibility to HIV-2 infection by combining in vitro infection of tonsillar Tfh with the ex vivo study of circulating Tfh from HIV-2-infected patients. We reveal that Tfh support productive HIV-2 infection and are preferential viral targets in HIV-2-infected individuals.

Blood ◽  
2015 ◽  
Vol 125 (15) ◽  
pp. 2381-2385 ◽  
Patricia Amé-Thomas ◽  
Sylvia Hoeller ◽  
Catherine Artchounin ◽  
Jan Misiak ◽  
Mounia Sabrina Braza ◽  

Key Points CD10 identifies a unique subset of fully functional germinal center TFH that are activated and amplified within the FL cell niche. FL CD10pos TFH specifically display an IL-4hiIFN-γlo cytokine profile and encompass the malignant B-cell-supportive TFH subset.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hugo Barcenilla ◽  
Mikael Pihl ◽  
Jeanette Wahlberg ◽  
Johnny Ludvigsson ◽  
Rosaura Casas

Antigen-specific immunotherapy is an appealing strategy to preserve beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes, although the approach has yet to meet its therapeutic endpoint. Direct administration of autoantigen into lymph nodes has emerged as an alternative administration route that can improve the efficacy of the treatment. In the first open-label clinical trial in humans, injection of aluminum-formulated glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-alum) into an inguinal lymph node led to the promising preservation of C-peptide in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. The treatment induced a distinct immunomodulatory effect, but the response at the cell level has not been fully characterized. Here we used mass cytometry to profile the immune landscape in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 12 participants of the study before and after 15 months of treatment. The immunomodulatory effect of the therapy included reduction of naïve and unswitched memory B cells, increase in follicular helper T cells and expansion of PD-1+ CD69+ cells in both CD8+ and double negative T cells. In vitro stimulation with GAD65 only affected effector CD8+ T cells in samples collected before the treatment. However, the recall response to antigen after 15 months included induction of CXCR3+ and CD11c+Tbet+ B cells, PD-1+ follicular helper T cells and exhausted-like CD8+ T cells. This study provides a deeper insight into the immunological changes associated with GAD-alum administration directly into the lymph nodes.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document