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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 883-888
Ayodhya Cardoso Ramalho ◽  
Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira ◽  
Max Bruno Magno Bacalhao ◽  
Monica Tiemi Aline Kakimori ◽  

Parasitic infections are important concern to the Wildlife Conservation Biology, particularly in endangered species. Herein, we report a parasitism by Dipetalonema gracile Rudolphi, 1809 (Spirurida, Filarioidea, Onchocercidae), in the peritoneal cavity of a captive Marcgrave’s capuchin monkey (Sapajus flavius) that died at the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS) of the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) in the municipality of Cabedelo, state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. The necropsy revealed two filarial worms D. gracile in the abdominal cavity. Exudates, thin fibrin layers and fibrous adhesions were also present in the mesentery and spleen capsule. The mesenteric, mandibular, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were enlarged. Multiple small nodules were seen in the spleen parenchyma. Microscopic examination of the lymph nodes and spleen revealed markedly and diffuse inflammatory reaction, with edema, plasma cells, eosinophils, histiocytes, lymphocytes and rare multinuclear giant cells, with obliteration of the normal histological architecture of the organ. This is the first report of D. gracile parasitism in Marcgrave’s capuchin monkeys, a critically endangered species. Studies of this nature significantly contribute to the knowledge of the parasitic fauna of endangered species, in addition to helping to formulate conservation strategies (in situ and ex situ) and records of new hosts and new areas of occurrence of parasites.

Oral Oncology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 125 ◽  
pp. 105702
Ryusuke Nakamoto ◽  
Jialin Zhuo ◽  
Kip E. Guja ◽  
Heying Duan ◽  
Stephanie L. Perkins ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Aoife M. O'Byrne ◽  
Tineke A. de Jong ◽  
Lisa G. M. van Baarsen

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown etiology characterized by inflammation of the peripheral synovial joints leading to pannus formation and bone destruction. Rheumatoid Factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are present years before clinical manifestations and are indicative of a break in tolerance that precedes chronic inflammation. The majority of studies investigating disease pathogenesis focus on the synovial joint as target site of inflammation while few studies explore the initial break in peripheral tolerance which occurs within secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes. If explored during the earliest phases of RA, lymph node research may provide innovative drug targets for disease modulation or prevention. RA research largely centers on the role and origin of lymphocytes, such as pro-inflammatory T cells and macrophages that infiltrate the joint, as well as growing efforts to determine the role of stromal cells within the synovium. It is therefore important to explore these cell types also within the lymph node as a number of mouse studies suggest a prominent immunomodulatory role for lymph node stromal cells. Synovium and proximal peripheral lymph nodes should be investigated in conjunction with one another to gain understanding of the immunological processes driving RA progression from systemic autoimmunity toward synovial inflammation. This perspective seeks to provide an overview of current literature concerning the immunological changes present within lymph nodes and synovium during early RA. It will also propose areas that warrant further exploration with the aim to uncover novel targets to prevent disease progression.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Liang Zhao ◽  
Guangyu Bai ◽  
Ying Ji ◽  
Yue Peng ◽  
Ruochuan Zang ◽  

IntroductionStage IA lung adenocarcinoma manifested as part-solid nodules (PSNs), has attracted immense attention owing to its unique characteristics and the definition of its invasiveness remains unclear. We sought to develop a nomogram for predicting the status of lymph nodes of this kind of nodules.MethodsA total of 2,504 patients between September 2018 to October 2020 with part-solid nodules in our center were reviewed. Their histopathological features were extracted from paraffin sections, whereas frozen sections were reviewed to confirm the consistency of frozen sections and paraffin sections. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses and Akaike information criterion (AIC) variable selection were performed to assess the risk factors of lymph node metastasis and construct the nomogram. The nomogram was subjected to bootstrap internal validation and external validation. The concordance index (C-index) was applied to evaluate the predictive accuracy and discriminative ability.ResultsWe enrolled 215 and 161 eligible patients in the training cohort and validation cohort, respectively. The sensitivity between frozen and paraffin sections on the presence of micropapillary/solid subtype was 78.4%. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that MVI, the presence of micropapillary/solid subtype, and CTR >0.61 were independently associated with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01). Five risk factors were integrated into the nomogram. The nomogram demonstrated good accuracy in estimating the risk of lymph node metastasis, with a C-index of 0.945 (95% CI: 0.916–0.974) in the training cohort and a C-index of 0.975 (95% CI: 0.954–0.995) in the validation cohort. The model’s calibration was excellent in both cohorts.ConclusionThe nomogram established showed excellent discrimination and calibration and could predict the status of lymph nodes for patients with ≤3 cm PSNs. Also, this prediction model has the prediction potential before the end of surgery.

Rosana Maia ◽  
Joana Couto ◽  
José Diogo Martins ◽  
Edgar Torre ◽  
Diana Guerra

Castleman disease is an uncommon and heterogenous lymphoproliferative disorder which is classified as unicentric or multicentric depending on the number of lymph nodes involved. Each type has a different clinical presentation, aetiology, treatment and prognosis. We report the case of a young woman who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy and a retroperitoneal mass, and was diagnosed with unicentric Castleman disease and pheochromocytoma. We describe the diagnostic steps, the complications that developed, and the importance of the differential diagnosis in the evaluation of these patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Lei Chen ◽  
Luzeng Chen ◽  
Zhenwei Liang ◽  
Yuhong Shao ◽  
Xiuming Sun ◽  

ObjectiveTo evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the detection of extracapsular extension (ECE) and cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and the added value of CEUS in the evaluation of PTC invasiveness to conventional ultrasound (US).Materials and MethodsA total of 62 patients were enrolled retrospectively, including 30 patients with invasive PTCs (Group A, ECE or LNM present) and 32 patients with non-invasive PTCs (Group B). All patients underwent US and CEUS examinations before surgery. US and CEUS features of PTCs and lymph nodes were compared between groups. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of US, CEUS, and the combination of the two in the detection of ECE and LNM of PTCs were calculated. Logistic regression was used to analyze relationships between variables.ResultsThe PTC size was larger in group A on both US and CEUS (P = 0.001, P = 0.003). More PTCs showed hyper-enhancement in group A (P = 0.013) than in group B. More PTCs had >25% contact between PTC and the thyroid capsule and discontinued capsule on US and CEUS (all P < 0.05) in group A than in group B. More absent hilum and calcification of lymph nodes were observed in group A (both P < 0.05) than in group B on US. More centripetal perfusion and enlarged lymph nodes were observed in group A (both P < 0.05) than in group B on CEUS. CEUS alone and US combined with CEUS manifested higher diagnostic accuracy (79.0%) than US alone (72.6%) in the detection of ECE. The combination of US and CEUS manifested the highest diagnostic accuracy (95.2%) than CEUS alone (90.3%) and US alone (82.2%) in the detection of LNM. Diagnoses of ECE and LNM by the combination of US and CEUS were independent risk factors for PTC invasiveness [odds ratio (OR) = 29.49 and 97.20, respectively; both P = 0.001].ConclusionCEUS or US combined with CEUS is recommended for the detection of PTC ECE, while the combination of US and CEUS is most recommended for LNM detection. CEUS plays an essential role in the preoperative evaluation of PTC invasiveness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chunting Zhu ◽  
Yi Zhao ◽  
Fang Yu ◽  
Weijia Huang ◽  
Wenjun Wu ◽  

BackgroundTumor flare reaction (TFR) is a clinical syndrome, which is mainly associated with painful and swollen lymph nodes or splenomegaly, slight fever, bone pain, and skin rash during treatment with immune-related drugs, causing difficulty in distinguishing TFR from disease progression. Brentuximab vedotin (BV) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor are two ideal drugs used for the treatment of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, but few studies have reported their adverse effects in association with TFR. The efficacy and safety of monotherapy or combination therapy with these drugs needs to be further evaluated. It is essential to determine whether treated patients can develop TFR, thus enabling more accurate diagnosis and treatment.Case presentationA 26-year-old female patient, diagnosed with classic Hodgkin lymphoma, had received 2 + 3 cycles of ABVD chemotherapy (a combination of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) and 4 cycles of PD-1 inhibitor (tislelizumab) therapy but exhibited poor efficacy. Subsequently, she was given combination therapy of BV (100 mg) + tislelizumab (200 mg). However, a slight fever, painful and swollen axillary lymph nodes, multiple skin rashes with pruritus, joint pain, and fatigue with poor appetite appeared during the treatment. Ultrasound (US) scans revealed that multiple lymph nodes were significantly enlarged. After treatment with low-dose dexamethasone and cetirizine, the symptoms were alleviated. A biopsy of the left axillary lymph node revealed that lymphoid tissue exhibited proliferative changes, without tumor cell infiltration. These findings were consistent with the clinical and pathological manifestations of TFR.ConclusionCombination therapy with BV and PD-1 inhibitor was effective in the treatment of relapsed or refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma. The results suggest that the combination therapy may cause TFR, and biopsy and also continuous imaging observation are important to determine the disease stage. This approach allows clinicians to decide whether to continue the current treatment plan, and alerts them to the occurrence of excessive activation of the immune system.

2022 ◽  
Laura Sellmer ◽  
Julia Kovács ◽  
Jens Neumann ◽  
Julia Walter ◽  
Diego Kauffmann-Guerrero ◽  

Aim: To analyze immune cell populations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors and matched tumor-bearing and non-tumor-bearing lymph nodes (ntbLNs) to predict prognosis. Patients & methods: 71 patients with long-term disease-free survival and 80 patients with relapse within 3 years were included in this study. We used Cox regression to identify factors associated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: Sinus histiocytosis and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density in the tumor were positively associated with PFS and OS. CD4 expression in N1 (hazard ratio = 0.72; p = 0.02) and N2 (hazard ratio = 0.91; p = 0.04) ntbLNs were positively correlated with OS and PFS, respectively. Discussion: Immunological markers in ntbLNs could be used to predict survival in NSCLC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-37
Dogukan Durak ◽  
Ertugrul Gazi Alkurt ◽  
Veysel Barış Turhan

Objective: Although laparoscopic colon cancer surgeries have increased in recent years, their oncological competence is questioned. In our study, we aimed to evaluate oncological competence by comparing laparoscopic and open surgery. Material and Methods: The study was planned retrospectively. A total of 94 patients were included in the study, 42 of whom underwent laparoscopy, and 52 patients underwent open surgery. Both groups were compared in terms of demographic characteristics, staging, number of benign/malignant lymph nodes, histological findings and complications. Result: The final pathology report of all patients was adenocarcinoma. The median number of dissected lymph nodes was 20.9 in the open group (8-34) and 19.46 in the laparoscopy group (7-31) (p=0.639). The median number of dissected malignant lymph nodes was 1 (0-13) in the open surgery group and 3.1 (0-8) in the laparoscopy group (p=0.216). The laparoscopy group exhibited a longer operation time (281.2±54.2 and 221.0±51.5 min, respectively; P=0.036) than the open surgery group, but a shorter intensive care unit(ICU) discharge, quicker initiation oral feeding, and shorter length of hospital stay (4.0±0.9 vs. 5.7±2.0 days, respectively; P<0.001). Discussion: Laparoscopic surgery elicits many benefits such as less wound infection, lower requirement for blood transfusion, shorter hospitalization, quicker initiation of oral feeding and mobilization. Our study has shown that laparoscopic surgery provides quite adequate lymph node dissection when compared with oncological surgery, which is viewed with suspicion in the light of these benefits of laparoscopy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Dengke Teng ◽  
Chunhui Dong ◽  
Daju Sun ◽  
Zhuo Liu ◽  
Hui Wang

A randomized comparison of ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) under the assistance of hydrodissection with fine needle aspiration (FNA) was performed to evaluate the feasibility, safety and effectiveness for the diagnosis of high-risk cervical lymph nodes. Patients from December 2018 to May 2020 were randomly assigned to the CNB group and the FNA group at a ratio of 1:1. This study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of our hospital and registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1800019370). The feasibility of CNB for high-risk cervical lymph nodes was evaluated by observing and recording the separation success rate (SSR) and technical success rate (TSR) of the CNB group. Safety was evaluated by comparing the incidence of major complications in the two groups. The diagnostic efficacy was evaluated by comparing the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the two groups. A total of 84 patients (84 lymph nodes) were randomized into the CNB (n = 42) and FNA (n = 42) groups. All patients in the CNB group achieved successful hydrodissection and biopsy. The SSR and TSR were both 100% in the CNB group. There were no major complications during or after the process in the two groups. Compared with the FNA group, the CNB group was significantly superior in terms of diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity (100% vs. 81.0%, P = 0.009; 100% vs. 79.2%, P = 0.035, respectively). The specificity of the two groups was 100%, and there was no significant difference. Compared with FNA, CNB under the assistance of hydrodissection is a feasible and safe method but is more effective for the diagnosis of high-risk cervical lymph nodes.Clinical Trial Registration, ChiCTR1800019370.

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