natural killer
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2022 ◽  
Vol 270 ◽  
pp. 94-103
Martin Mauser ◽  
Deirdré Kruger ◽  
Sugeshnee Pather ◽  
Frank Plani

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Leila Khani ◽  
Mir Hadi Jazayeri ◽  
Reza Nedaeinia ◽  
Mahmood Bozorgmehr ◽  
Seyed Masood Nabavi ◽  

Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica syndrome disease (NMOSD) are inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. The pathogenesis and treatments for these two conditions are very different. Natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells are immune cells with an important role in shaping the immune response. B cells are involved in antigen presentation as well as antibody and cytokine production. There is conflicting evidence of the roles of NK, NKT, and B cells in the two conditions. We aimed to compare the frequency of CD3−CD16+CD56+NK, CD3+ CD56+ NKT, and CD5+CD19+ B cells in the peripheral blood and serum Interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients with MS and NMOSD. Methods CD19+CD5+ B, CD3− CD16+CD56+ NK, and CD3+CD56+ NKT cells were quantitated by flow cytometry in 15 individuals with Interferon-Beta (IFN-β) treated relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS), 15 untreated RRMS, and 15 NMOSD patients as well as 30 healthy controls (HC). Serum IL-10 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The percentage of CD3−CD56+CD16+ NK cells in the peripheral blood of IFN-treated MS (1.81 ± 0.87) was significantly lower than for untreated RRMS (4.74 ± 1.80), NMOSD (4.64 ± 1.26) and HC (5.83 ± 2.19) (p < 0.0001). There were also differences for the percentage of CD3−CD16+ and CD3−CD56+ cells (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0007; respectively). IFN-treated RRMS (2.89 ± 1.51) had the lowest proportion of CD3+CD56+ among the study groups (p < 0.002). Untreated RRMS (5.56 ± 3.04) and NMOSD (5.47 ± 1.24) had higher levels of CD3+CD56+ than the HC (3.16 ± 1.98). The mean percentage of CD19+CD5+ B cells in the peripheral blood of untreated RRMS patients (1.32 ± 0.67) was higher compared to the patients with NMOSD (0.30 ± 0.20), HC (0.5 ± 0.22) and IFN-treated RRMS (0.81 ± 0.17) (p < 0.0001). Serum interleukin-10 was significantly higher in the IFN-treated RRMS (8.06 ± 5.39) and in HC (8.38 ± 2.84) compared to untreated RRMS (5.07 ± 1.44) and the patients with NMOSD (5.33 ± 2.56) (p < 0.003). Conclusions The lower proportion of CD3−CD56+ CD16+ NK and CD3+CD56+ cells in peripheral blood of IFN-treated RRMS compared to other groups suggests the importance of immunomodulation in patients with RRMS disorder. Based on the differences in CD19+CD5+ B cells and serum IL-10 between patients and HC, supplementary assessments could be of value in clarifying their roles in autoimmunity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Reza Hosseini ◽  
Hamzeh Sarvnaz ◽  
Maedeh Arabpour ◽  
Samira Molaei Ramshe ◽  
Leila Asef-Kabiri ◽  

AbstractTumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) play pivotal roles in several aspects of cancer biology. It is now evident that TDEs also favor tumor growth by negatively affecting anti-tumor immunity. As important sentinels of immune surveillance system, natural killer (NK) cells can recognize malignant cells very early and counteract the tumor development and metastasis without a need for additional activation. Based on this rationale, adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded NK cells/NK cell lines, such as NK-92 cells, has attracted great attention and is widely studied as a promising immunotherapy for cancer treatment. However, by exploiting various strategies, including secretion of exosomes, cancer cells are able to subvert NK cell responses. This paper reviews the roles of TDEs in cancer-induced NK cells impairments with mechanistic insights. The clinical significance and potential approaches to nullify the effects of TDEs on NK cells in cancer immunotherapy are also discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sina Fuchs ◽  
Andrea Scheffschick ◽  
Iva Gunnarsson ◽  
Hanna Brauner

Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)- associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of systemic autoimmune diseases characterized by inflammation of small- and medium-sized vessels. The three main types of AAV are granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). A growing number of studies focus on natural killer (NK) cells in AAV. NK cells are innate lymphoid cells with important roles in anti-viral and anti-tumor defense, but their roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity is less well established. In this review, we will present a summary of what is known about the number, phenotype and function of NK cells in patients with AAV. We review the literature on NK cells in the circulation of AAV patients, studies on tissue resident NK cells and how the treatment affects NK cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (3) ◽  
pp. e2114134119
Shoubao Ma ◽  
Tingting Tang ◽  
Xiaojin Wu ◽  
Anthony G. Mansour ◽  
Ting Lu ◽  

The axis of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFRβ) plays prominent roles in cell growth and motility. In addition, PDGF-D enhances human natural killer (NK) cell effector functions when binding to the NKp44 receptor. Here, we report an additional but previously unknown role of PDGF-D, whereby it mediates interleukin-15 (IL-15)–induced human NK cell survival but not effector functions via its binding to PDGFRβ but independent of its binding to NKp44. Resting NK cells express no PDGFRβ and only a low level of PDGF-D, but both are significantly up-regulated by IL-15, via the nuclear factor κB signaling pathway, to promote cell survival in an autocrine manner. Both ectopic and IL-15–induced expression of PDGFRβ improves NK cell survival in response to treatment with PDGF-D. Our results suggest that the PDGF-D−PDGFRβ signaling pathway is a mechanism by which IL-15 selectively regulates the survival of human NK cells without modulating their effector functions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maria Teresa Palano ◽  
Martina Cucchiara ◽  
Matteo Gallazzi ◽  
Federica Riccio ◽  
Lorenzo Mortara ◽  

Atherosclerosis (ATS), the change in structure and function of arteries with associated lesion formation and altered blood flow, is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease, the number one killer worldwide. Beyond dyslipidemia, chronic inflammation, together with aberrant phenotype and function of cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system, are now recognized as relevant contributors to atherosclerosis onset and progression. While the role of macrophages and T cells in atherosclerosis has been addressed in several studies, Natural Killer cells (NKs) represent a poorly explored immune cell type, that deserves attention, due to NKs’ emerging contribution to vascular homeostasis. Furthermore, the possibility to re-polarize the immune system has emerged as a relevant tool to design new therapies, with some succesfull exmples in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Thus, a deeper knowledge of NK cell pathophysiology in the context of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-associated risk factors could help developing new preventive and treatment strategies, and decipher the complex scenario/history from “the risk factors for atherosclerosis” Here, we review the current knowledge about NK cell phenotype and activities in atherosclerosis and selected atherosclerosis risk factors, namely type-2 diabetes and obesity, and discuss the related NK-cell oriented environmental signals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 797
Tatiana Michel ◽  
Markus Ollert ◽  
Jacques Zimmer

Despite significant progress in recent years, the therapeutic approach of the multiple different forms of human cancer often remains a challenge. Besides the well-established cancer surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunotherapeutic strategies gain more and more attention, and some of them have already been successfully introduced into the clinic. Among these, immunotherapy based on natural killer (NK) cells is considered as one of the most promising options. In the present review, we will expose the different possibilities NK cells offer in this context, compare data about the theoretical background and mechanism(s) of action, report some results of clinical trials and identify several very recent trends. The pharmaceutical industry is quite interested in NK cell immunotherapy, which will benefit the speed of progress in the field.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ryland D. Mortlock ◽  
Chuanfeng Wu ◽  
E. Lake Potter ◽  
Diana M. Abraham ◽  
David S. J. Allan ◽  

The in vivo tissue distribution and trafficking patterns of natural killer (NK) cells remain understudied. Animal models can help bridge the gap, and rhesus macaque (RM) primates faithfully recapitulate key elements of human NK cell biology. Here, we profiled the tissue distribution and localization patterns of three NK cell subsets across various RM tissues. We utilized serial intravascular staining (SIVS) to investigate the tissue trafficking kinetics at steady state and during recovery from CD16 depletion. We found that at steady state, CD16+ NK cells were selectively retained in the vasculature while CD56+ NK cells had a shorter residence time in peripheral blood. We also found that different subsets of NK cells had distinct trafficking kinetics to and from the lymph node as well as other lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. Lastly, we found that following administration of CD16-depleting antibody, CD16+ NK cells and their putative precursors retained a high proportion of continuously circulating cells, suggesting that regeneration of the CD16 NK compartment may take place in peripheral blood or the perivascular compartments of tissues.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ondrej Venglar ◽  
Julio Rodriguez Bago ◽  
Benjamin Motais ◽  
Roman Hajek ◽  
Tomas Jelinek

Natural killer (NK) cells represent a subset of CD3- CD7+ CD56+/dim lymphocytes with cytotoxic and suppressor activity against virus-infected cells and cancer cells. The overall potential of NK cells has brought them to the spotlight of targeted immunotherapy in solid and hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Nonetheless, NK cells are subjected to a variety of cancer defense mechanisms, leading to impaired maturation, chemotaxis, target recognition, and killing. This review aims to summarize the available and most current knowledge about cancer-related impairment of NK cell function occurring in MM.

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