immunodeficiency virus
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Zackary Falls ◽  
Jonathan Fine ◽  
Gaurav Chopra ◽  
Ram Samudrala

The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) protease is an important target for treating HIV infection. Our goal was to benchmark a novel molecular docking protocol and determine its effectiveness as a therapeutic repurposing tool by predicting inhibitor potency to this target. To accomplish this, we predicted the relative binding scores of various inhibitors of the protease using CANDOCK, a hierarchical fragment-based docking protocol with a knowledge-based scoring function. We first used a set of 30 HIV-1 protease complexes as an initial benchmark to optimize the parameters for CANDOCK. We then compared the results from CANDOCK to two other popular molecular docking protocols Autodock Vina and Smina. Our results showed that CANDOCK is superior to both of these protocols in terms of correlating predicted binding scores to experimental binding affinities with a Pearson coefficient of 0.62 compared to 0.48 and 0.49 for Vina and Smina, respectively. We further leveraged the Database of Useful Decoys: Enhanced (DUD-E) HIV protease set to ascertain the effectiveness of each protocol in discriminating active versus decoy ligands for proteases. CANDOCK again displayed better efficacy over the other commonly used molecular docking protocols with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.94 compared to 0.71 and 0.74 for Vina and Smina. These findings support the utility of CANDOCK to help discover novel therapeutics that effectively inhibit HIV-1 and possibly other retroviral proteases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Zhaoying Chen ◽  
Chen Jiang ◽  
Xiaoyu Cheng ◽  
Lidan Ma ◽  
Ying Xin ◽  

Abstract Background Previous reports have described hypogonadism associated with virus infection such as hantavirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). However, to our best knowledge there has been no case report of secondary hypogonadism following hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Case presentation A previously healthy 28-year-old man with no history of major physical and psychological trauma, presented with bilateral gynecomastia and erectile dysfunction 2 weeks after HFMD. Laboratory testament showed the level of gonadotropin hormones declined. Imaging examination demonstrated no major abnormal change in pituitary or reproductive system. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was established. Then the patient was ordered to maintain mental health outward of hospital without drug intervention. One month after presentation, his gonadotropin hormone level and sexual desire had recovered, while bilateral gynecomastia and erectile dysfunction symptoms disappeared. Conclusions Physicians should notice the possibility for hypogonadism in adult patients with a recent history of HFMD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Jiao Wang ◽  
Changxin Yu ◽  
Junyi Zhuang ◽  
Wenxin Qi ◽  
Jiawen Jiang ◽  

AbstractThe negatively charged aminophospholipid, phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), is located in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in normal cells, and may be exposed to the outer leaflet under some immune and blood coagulation processes. Meanwhile, Ptdser exposed to apoptotic cells can be recognized and eliminated by various immune cells, whereas on the surface of activated platelets Ptdser interacts with coagulation factors prompting enhanced production of thrombin which significantly facilitates blood coagulation. In the case where PtdSer fails in exposure or mistakenly occurs, there are occurrences of certain immunological and haematological diseases, such as the Scott syndrome and Systemic lupus erythematosus. Besides, viruses (e.g., Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Ebola virus (EBOV)) can invade host cells through binding the exposed PtdSer. Most recently, the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been similarly linked to PtdSer or its receptors. Therefore, it is essential to comprehensively understand PtdSer and its functional characteristics. Therefore, this review summarizes Ptdser, its eversion mechanism; interaction mechanism, particularly with its immune receptors and coagulation factors; recognition sites; and its function in immune and blood processes. This review illustrates the potential aspects for the underlying pathogenic mechanism of PtdSer-related diseases, and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies as well.

Retrovirology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Samira Joussef-Piña ◽  
Immaculate Nankya ◽  
Sophie Nalukwago ◽  
Joy Baseke ◽  
Sandra Rwambuya ◽  

Abstract Background Our understanding of the peripheral human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoir is strongly biased towards subtype B HIV-1 strains, with only limited information available from patients infected with non-B HIV-1 subtypes, which are the predominant viruses seen in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Africa and Asia. Results In this study, blood samples were obtained from well-suppressed ART-experienced HIV-1 patients monitored in Uganda (n = 62) or the U.S. (n = 50), with plasma HIV-1 loads < 50 copies/ml and CD4+ T-cell counts > 300 cells/ml. The peripheral HIV-1 reservoir, i.e., cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and proviral DNA, was characterized using our novel deep sequencing-based EDITS assay. Ugandan patients were slightly younger (median age 43 vs 49 years) and had slightly lower CD4+ counts (508 vs 772 cells/ml) than U.S. individuals. All Ugandan patients were infected with non-B HIV-1 subtypes (31% A1, 64% D, or 5% C), while all U.S. individuals were infected with subtype B viruses. Unexpectedly, we observed a significantly larger peripheral inducible HIV-1 reservoir in U.S. patients compared to Ugandan individuals (48 vs. 11 cell equivalents/million cells, p < 0.0001). This divergence in reservoir size was verified measuring proviral DNA (206 vs. 88 cell equivalents/million cells, p < 0.0001). However, the peripheral HIV-1 reservoir was more diverse in Ugandan than in U.S. individuals (8.6 vs. 4.7 p-distance, p < 0.0001). Conclusions The smaller, but more diverse, peripheral HIV-1 reservoir in Ugandan patients might be associated with viral (e.g., non-B subtype with higher cytopathicity) and/or host (e.g., higher incidence of co-infections or co-morbidities leading to less clonal expansion) factors. This highlights the need to understand reservoir dynamics in diverse populations as part of ongoing efforts to find a functional cure for HIV-1 infection in LMICs.

Menopause ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Edward Mezones-Holguín ◽  
José Arriola-Montenegro ◽  
Víctor Cutimanco-Pacheco ◽  
Ali Al-kassab-Córdova ◽  
Roberto Niño-García ◽  

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