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Ali Ebrahimi ◽  
Kamal Mirzaie ◽  
Ali Mohamad Latif

There are several methods for categorizing images, the most of which are statistical, geometric, model-based and structural methods. In this paper, a new method for describing images based on complex network models is presented. Each image contains a number of key points that can be identified through standard edge detection algorithms. To understand each image better, we can use these points to create a graph of the image. In order to facilitate the use of graphs, generated graphs are created in the form of a complex network of small-worlds. Complex grid features such as topological and dynamic features can be used to display image-related features. After generating this information, it normalizes them and uses them as suitable features for categorizing images. For this purpose, the generated information is given to the neural network. Based on these features and the use of neural networks, comparisons between new images are performed. The results of the article show that this method has a good performance in identifying similarities and finally categorizing them.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Brady Green ◽  
Jodie A. McClelland ◽  
Adam I. Semciw ◽  
Anthony G. Schache ◽  
Alan McCall ◽  

Abstract Background Despite calf muscle strain injuries (CMSI) being problematic in many sports, there is a dearth of research to guide clinicians dealing with these injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current practices and perspectives of a select group of international experts regarding the assessment, management and prevention of CMSI using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Results Twenty expert clinicians working in elite sport and/or clinician-researchers specialising in the field completed interviews. A number of key points emerged from the interviews. Characteristics of CMSI were considered unique compared to other muscle strains. Rigor in the clinical approach clarifies the diagnosis, whereas ongoing monitoring of calf capacity and responses to loading exposure provides the most accurate estimate of prognosis. Athlete intrinsic characteristics, injury factors and sport demands shaped rehabilitation across six management phases, which were guided by key principles to optimise performance at return to play (RTP) while avoiding subsequent injury or recurrence. To prevent CMSI, periodic monitoring is common, but practices vary and data are collected to inform load-management and exercise selection rather than predict future CMSI. A universal injury prevention program for CMSI may not exist. Instead, individualised strategies should reflect athlete intrinsic characteristics and sport demands. Conclusions Information provided by experts enabled a recommended approach to clinically evaluate CMSI to be outlined, highlighting the injury characteristics considered most important for diagnosis and prognosis. Principles for optimal management after CMSI were also identified, which involved a systematic approach to rehabilitation and the RTP decision. Although CMSI were reportedly difficult to prevent, on- and off-field strategies were implemented by experts to mitigate risk, particularly in susceptible athletes.

Edina Klein ◽  
Janek Weiler ◽  
Michael Wagner ◽  
Minja Čelikić ◽  
Christof M. Niemeyer ◽  

Abstract Wastewater treatment using aerobic granular sludge has gained increasing interest due to its advantages compared to conventional activated sludge. The technology allows simultaneous removal of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in a single reactor system and is independent of space-intensive settling tanks. However, due to the microscale, an analysis of processes and microbial population along the radius of granules is challenging. Here, we introduce a model system for aerobic granular sludge on a small scale by using a machine-assisted microfluidic cultivation platform. With an implemented logic module that controls solenoid valves, we realized alternating oxic hunger and anoxic feeding phases for the biofilms growing within. Sampling during ongoing anoxic cultivation directly from the cultivation channel was achieved with a robotic sampling device. Analysis of the biofilms was conducted using optical coherence tomography, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and amplicon sequencing. Using this setup, it was possible to significantly enrich the percentage of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) belonging to the family Rhodocyclaceae in the community compared to the starting inoculum. With the aid of this miniature model system, it is now possible to investigate the influence of a multitude of process parameters in a highly parallel way to understand and efficiently optimize aerobic granular sludge-based wastewater treatment systems.Key points• Development of a microfluidic model to study EBPR.• Feast-famine regime enriches polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs).• Microfluidics replace sequencing batch reactors for aerobic granular sludge research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 264-291
Sylvester T. Cortes ◽  
Valerie H. Bugtai ◽  
Eddalin Q. Lampawog ◽  
Cecile B. Sadili ◽  
Alma D. Agero ◽  

Background and Purpose: Urban agriculture (UA) has become an even more attractive option for food security and safety brought by the spread of COVID-19 which causes global health crisis. However, studies examining the perceived values, challenges, and needs towards urban agriculture are very limited and this does not exempt even the context of Cebu City in the Philippines. In this regard, this study aimed to assess the problems and prospects concerning urban agriculture in the aforementioned City. The purposes are to propose action plans and offer insights in designing and implementing food and agricultural programs and policies in the planned participatory action research (PAR) for sustainable urban agriculture.   Methodology: This study used Kemmis and McTaggart’s (1988) Model of Action Research. The use of this research method is an essential approach towards constructing sustainable developments of urban agricultural systems. However, only the planning stage was accomplished in this phase of action research of which it employed sequential explanatory research design. There were 509 household representatives in this stage of the study who participated in an online survey, 217 and 292 were from the north district and south district, respectively. Subsequently, each district had five representatives who were subjected to interviews to explain the quantitative results.   Findings: Results indicate that Cebuanos positively perceives the social, economic, health, environmental, and aesthetic values of urban agriculture. However, the presence of urban agriculture in the metropolitan is only from moderate to nonexistent due to lack of space or designated area. In addition, the participants disclosed a lack of training and capital or funding, thus further disengaging them from adopting urban agriculture. Nonetheless, the majority (n=463) expressed willingness to be trained in urban agriculture if given the opportunity.   Contributions: This study provides key points as to how urban agriculture can be promoted. These include designating some portions of public and privately unused lands as “urban agriculture areas”. In addition, financing institutions may also allocate small subsidies for marginally low-income families as their starting capital for urban agriculture activities. Finally, universities, non-government, and government agencies in the agriculture sector may train Cebuanos in backyard and rooftop gardening being the widely accepted urban agriculture form.   Keywords: Action research, perceived challenges, perceived needs, perceived values, urban agriculture.   Cite as: Cortes, S. T., Bugtai, V. H., Lampawog, E. Q., Sadili, C. B., Agero, A. D., Ramas, C. B., … Lorca, A. S. (2022). Understanding the issues of citizen participation.  Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 264-291.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 371
Jorge Gutiérrez Sáenz de Santa María ◽  
Borja Herrero de la Parte ◽  
Gaizka Gutiérrez-Sánchez ◽  
Inmaculada Ruiz Montesinos ◽  
Sira Iturrizaga Correcher ◽  

Liver resection remains the gold standard for hepatic metastases. The future liver remnant (FLR) and its functional status are two key points to consider before performing major liver resections, since patients with less than 25% FLR or a Child–Pugh B or C grade are not eligible for this procedure. Folinic acid (FA) is an essential agent in cell replication processes. Herein, we analyze the effect of FA as an enhancer of liver regeneration after selective portal vein ligation (PVL). Sixty-four male WAG/RijHsd rats were randomly distributed into eight groups: a control group and seven subjected to 50% PVL, by ligation of left portal branch. The treated animals received FA (2.5 m/kg), while the rest were given saline. After 36 h, 3 days or 7 days, liver tissue and blood samples were obtained. FA slightly but significantly increased FLR percentage (FLR%) on the 7th day (91.88 ± 0.61%) compared to control or saline-treated groups (86.72 ± 2.5 vs. 87 ± 3.33%; p < 0.01). The hepatocyte nuclear area was also increased both at 36 h and 7days with FA (61.55 ± 16.09 µm2, and 49.91 ± 15.38 µm2; p < 0.001). Finally, FA also improved liver function. In conclusion, FA has boosted liver regeneration assessed by FLR%, nuclear area size and restoration of liver function after PVL.

Drones ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 18
Salvatore Rosario Bassolillo ◽  
Egidio D’Amato ◽  
Immacolata Notaro ◽  
Gennaro Ariante ◽  
Giuseppe Del Core ◽  

In recent years the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has considerably grown in the civil sectors, due to their high flexibility of use. Currently, two important key points are making them more and more successful in the civil field, namely the decrease of production costs and the increase in navigation accuracy. In this paper, we propose a Kalman filtering-based sensor fusion algorithm, using a low cost navigation platform that contains an inertial measurement unit (IMU), five ultrasonic ranging sensors and an optical flow camera. The aim is to improve navigation in indoor or GPS-denied environments. A multi-rate version of the Extended Kalman Filter is considered to deal with the use of heterogeneous sensors with different sampling rates, and the presence of non-linearities in the model. The effectiveness of the proposed sensor platform is evaluated by means of numerical tests on the dynamic flight simulator of a quadrotor. Results show high precision and robustness of the attitude estimation algorithm, with a reduced computational cost, being ready to be implemented on low-cost platforms.

Brennan Hodgson Kim ◽  
Jeanne Krick ◽  
Simone Schneider ◽  
Andres Montes ◽  
Uchenna E. Anani ◽  

Objective The objective of this study was to better understand how neonatology (Neo) and maternal–fetal medicine (MFM) physicians approach the process of shared decision-making (SDM) with parents facing extremely premature (<25 weeks estimated gestational age) delivery during antenatal counseling. Study Design Attending physicians at U.S. centers with both Neo and MFM fellowships were invited to answer an original online survey about antenatal counseling for extremely early newborns. Preferences for conveying information are reported elsewhere. Here, we report clinicians' self-assessments of their ability to engage in deliberations and decision-making and perceptions of what is important to parents in the SDM process. Multivariable logistic regression analyzed respondents' views with respect to individual characteristics, such as specialty, gender, and years of clinical experience. Results In total, 74 MFMs and 167 Neos representing 94% of the 81 centers surveyed responded. Neos versus MFMs reported repeat visits with parents less often (<0.001) and agreed that parents were more likely to have made delivery room decisions before they counseled them less often (p < 0.001). Respondents reported regularly achieving most goals of SDM, with the exception of providing spiritual support. Most respondents reported that spiritual and religious views, risk to an infant's survival, and the infant's quality of life were important to parental decision-making, while a physician's own personal choice and family political views were reported as less important. While many barriers to SDM exist, respondents rated language barriers and family views that differ from those of a provider as the most difficult barriers to overcome. Conclusion This study provides insights into how consultants from different specialties and demographic groups facilitate SDM, thereby informing future efforts for improving counseling and engaging in SDM with parents facing extremely early deliveries and supporting evidence-based training for these complex communication skills. Key Points

Qing Wei ◽  
Wenjing Chen ◽  
Qian Liang ◽  
Shurong Song ◽  
Jia Li

Objective Meconium is a common finding in amniotic fluid and placental specimens, particularly in term and post-term pregnancies. The objective of this paper was to perform a meta-analysis to examine the impact of endotracheal suctioning on the occurrence of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), mortality, and complications. Study Design PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library were systematically searched for comparative studies. Odds ratios (ORs), weighted mean differences (WMDs), and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare the outcomes. Results Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. There were no significant impacts of endotracheal suctioning on the occurrence of MAS (OR = 3.05, 95% CI: 0.48–19.56), mortality (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.35–4.44), the need for mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.20, 95% CI: 0.32–54.72), the occurrence of pneumothorax (OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.34–2.85), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.58–2.98), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.52–1.30), and length of stay (WMD = −0.11, 95% CI: −0.99–0.77). Conclusion Routine endotracheal suctioning at birth is not useful in preventing MAS, mortality, mechanical ventilation, PPHN, HIE, and prolonged length of stay in neonates born through MSAF. Key Points

Henry Garrett

New setting is introduced to study &ldquo;closing numbers&rdquo; and &ldquo;super-closing numbers&rdquo; as optimal-super-resolving number, optimal-super-coloring number and optimal-super-dominating number. In this way, some approaches are applied to get some sets from (Neutrosophic)n-SuperHyperGraph and after that, some ideas are applied to get different types of super-closing numbers which are called by optimal-super-resolving number, optimal-super-coloring number and optimal-super-dominating number. The notion of dual is another new idea which is covered by these notions and results. In the setting of dual, the set of super-vertices is exchanged with the set of super-edges. Thus these results and definitions hold in the setting of dual. Setting of neutrosophic n-SuperHyperGraph is used to get some examples and solutions for two applications which are proposed. Both setting of SuperHyperGraph and neutrosophic n-SuperHyperGraph are simultaneously studied but the results are about the setting of n-SuperHyperGraphs. Setting of neutrosophic n-SuperHyperGraph get some examples where neutrosophic hypergraphs as special case of neutrosophic n-SuperHyperGraph are used. The clarifications use neutrosophic n-SuperHyperGraph and theoretical study is to use n-SuperHyperGraph but these results are also applicable into neutrosophic n-SuperHyperGraph. Special usage from different attributes of neutrosophic n-SuperHyperGraph are appropriate to have open ways to pursue this study. Different types of procedures including optimal-super-set, and optimal-super-number alongside study on the family of (neutrosophic)n-SuperHyperGraph are proposed in this way, some results are obtained. General classes of (neutrosophic)n-SuperHyperGraph are used to obtains these closing numbers and super-closing numbers and the representatives of the optimal-super-coloring sets, optimal-super-dominating sets and optimal-super-resolving sets. Using colors to assign to the super-vertices of n-SuperHyperGraph and characterizing optimal-super-resolving sets and optimal-super-dominating sets are applied. Some questions and problems are posed concerning ways to do further studies on this topic. Using different ways of study on n-SuperHyperGraph to get new results about closing numbers and super-closing numbers alongside sets in the way that some closing numbers super-closing numbers get understandable perspective. Family of n-SuperHyperGraph are studied to investigate about the notions, super-resolving and super-coloring alongside super-dominating in n-SuperHyperGraph. In this way, sets of representatives of optimal-super-colors, optimal-super-resolving sets and optimal-super-dominating sets have key role. Optimal-super sets and optimal-super numbers have key points to get new results but in some cases, there are usages of sets and numbers instead of optimal-super ones. Simultaneously, three notions are applied into (neutrosophic)n-SuperHyperGraph to get sensible results about their structures. Basic familiarities with n-SuperHyperGraph theory and neutrosophic n-SuperHyperGraph theory are proposed for this article.

Alexander Kettner ◽  
Matthias Noll ◽  
Carola Griehl

Abstract Fluorescence spectroscopy offers a cheap, simple, and fast approach to monitor poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) formation, a biodegradable polymer belonging to the biodegradable polyester class polyhydroxyalkanoates. In the present study, a fluorescence and side scatter-based spectroscopic setup was developed to monitor in situ biomass, and PHB formation of biotechnological applied Cupriavidus necator strain. To establish PHB quantification of C. necator, the dyes 2,2-difluoro-4,6,8,10,12-pentamethyl-3-aza-1-azonia-2-boranuidatricyclo[,7]dodeca-1(12),4,6,8,10-pentaene (BODIPY493/503), ethyl 5-methoxy-1,2-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-3-oxoindole-2-carboxylate (LipidGreen2), and 9-(diethylamino)benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one (Nile red) were compared with each other. Fluorescence staining efficacy was obtained through 3D-excitation-emission matrix and design of experiments. The coefficients of determination were ≥ 0.98 for all three dyes and linear to the high-pressure liquid chromatography obtained PHB content, and the side scatter to the biomass concentration. The fluorescence correlation models were further improved by the incorporation of the biomass-related side scatter. Afterward, the resulting regression fluorescence models were successfully applied to nitrogen-deficit, phosphor-deficit, and NaCl-stressed C. necator cultures. The highest transferability of the regression models was shown by using LipidGreen2. The novel approach opens a tailor-made way for a fast and simultaneous detection of the crucial biotechnological parameters biomass and PHB content during fermentation. Key points • Intracellular quantification of PHB and biomass using fluorescence spectroscopy. • Optimizing fluorescence staining conditions and 3D-excitation-emission matrix. • PHB was best obtained by LipidGreen2, followed by BODIPDY493/503 and Nile red. Graphical abstract

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