achr antibody
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. e248011
Charlotte Willis ◽  
Max Williamson ◽  
Nicholas Constantinou ◽  
Emily Johns

An 81-year-old woman presented with neck weakness, dysarthria, dysphasia and left-sided ptosis. Myasthenia gravis (MG) was strongly suspected. Voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) antibodies, associated with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), were negative. Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody level was 536 nmol/L and diagnosis of MG was confirmed. Imaging revealed a pelvic mass and subsequent biopsy confirmed a pelvic follicular lymphoma. Our searches revealed this to be the first documented case of MG associated with a pelvic follicular lymphoma. She underwent radiotherapy to treat the lymphoma and received both pyridostigmine and immunosuppression to treat the MG. Her AChR antibody level decreased to 38 nmol/L and her MG symptoms resolved aside from head drop which is continuing to improve. Her lymphoma is now in remission. We have presented a case with a successful outcome, which highlights the importance of screening for lymphoma and thymoma in new presentations of MG.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yu Cai ◽  
Lu Han ◽  
Desheng Zhu ◽  
Jing Peng ◽  
Jianping Li ◽  

Cell-based assays (CBAs) and radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) are the most sensitive methods for identifying anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody in myasthenia gravis (MG). But CBAs are limited in clinical practice by transient transfection. We established a stable cell line (KL525) expressing clustered AChR by infecting HEK 293T cells with dual lentiviral vectors expressing the genes encoding the human AChR α1, β1, δ, ϵ and the clustering protein rapsyn. We verified the stable expression of human clustered AChR by immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and real-time PCR. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to detect anti-AChR antibodies in 103 MG patients and 58 healthy individuals. The positive results of MG patients reported by the KL525 was 80.6% (83/103), 29.1% higher than the 51.4% (53/103) of RIPA. 58 healthy individuals tested by both the KL525 CBA and RIPA were all negative. In summary, the stable expression of clustered AChR in our cell line makes it highly sensitive and advantageous for broad clinical application in CBAs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. e945
Shinji Ashida ◽  
Hirofumi Ochi ◽  
Mio Hamatani ◽  
Chihiro Fujii ◽  
Kimitoshi Kimura ◽  

ObjectiveTo clarify functional alterations of follicular helper T cells (Tfh) in myasthenia gravis (MG) because Tfh play important roles in helping B cells generate antibody-producing cells.MethodsA total of 24 immunotherapy-naive patients with anti–acetylcholine receptor (AchR) antibody–positive MG and 18 age-matched healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled. Samples from 6 patients were available for posttreatment analysis. Subsets of circulating Tfh (cTfh) and B cells were identified by flow cytometry analysis of surface molecules. Cytokine production by isolated cTfh subsets from 5 patients with MG and 5 HS was measured in vitro. Analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the frequency of cTfh subsets and that of plasmablasts and between cTfh subsets and the quantitative MG score.ResultscTfh increased with elevated expression of inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS) in patients with MG. cTfh shifted to Th2 and Th17 over Th1 in MG. ICOShighcTfh produced significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-21, IL-4, and IL-17A than ICOSlow cTfh only in patients with MG. The frequency of cTfh within CD4 T cells was more closely associated with disease severity than the serum anti-AchR antibody titer and frequency of plasmablasts within B cells. Abnormalities of cTfh were improved after immunotherapy in parallel with clinical improvement.ConclusionsAlternation of cTfh is a key feature in the development of MG and may become a biomarker for disease severity and therapeutic efficacy.Classification of EvidenceThis study provides Class II evidence that the level of cTfh is associated with disease severity in patients with MG.

2021 ◽  
Vol 74 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 33-40
Mecbure Nalbantoglu ◽  
Mehmet Ali Akalin ◽  
Aysegul Gunduz ◽  
Meral Kiziltan

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission. Autonomic dysfunction is not a commonly known association with MG. We conducted this study to evaluate autonomic functions in MG & subgroups and to investigate the effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This study comprised 30 autoimmune MG patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Autonomic tests including sympathetic skin response (SSR) and R-R interval variation analysis (RRIV) was carried out. The tests were performed two times for patients who were under acetylcholinesterase inhibitors during the current assessment. The RRIV rise during hyperventilation was better (p=0.006) and Valsalva ratio (p=0.039) was lower in control group. The SSR amplitudes were lower thereafter drug intake (p=0.030). As much as time went by after drug administration prolonged SSR latencies were obtained (p=0.043).Valsalva ratio was lower in the AchR antibody negative group (p=0.033). The findings showed that both ocular/generalized MG patients have a subclinical parasympathetic abnormality prominent in the AchR antibody negative group and pyridostigmine has a peripheral sympathetic cholinergic noncumulative effect.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 117957352110160
Thomas Mathew ◽  
Kurian Thomas ◽  
Saji K John ◽  
Shruthi Venkatesh ◽  
Raghunandan Nadig ◽  

Background: Rituximab is reserved for treating refractory myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. Here we report our experience with rituximab in AChR antibody positive generalized MG (gMG) and impending myasthenic crisis (IMC). Methods: This retrospective, observational study, conducted at a tertiary care, neuroimmunology clinic, analyzed the data of patients with AChR antibody positive gMG, treated with rituximab between 1st January 2016 and 30th October 2018. Results: Eleven patients with AChR antibody positive gMG received rituximab. Mean age of the cohort was 50.54 ± 18.71 years with 9 males. Seven out of 11 patients received rituximab in the early stage (<2 years from onset) and had good response to treatment. Four of the 5 patients with IMC improved with rituximab alone. In the 10 patients who regularly followed up, there was a significant difference between the QMG scores at baseline and at 1, 2, 6, 12, and 18 months ( P < .0001). Conclusion: Rituximab appears to be a potentially effective early treatment option for AChR antibody positive generalized MG and impending myasthenic crisis.

Neurology ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 95 (6) ◽  
pp. e755-e766
Ikjae Lee ◽  
Hui-Chien Kuo ◽  
Inmaculada B. Aban ◽  
Gary R. Cutter ◽  
Tarrant McPherson ◽  

ObjectiveTo examine whether sustained minimal manifestation status (MMS) with complete withdrawal of prednisone is better achieved in thymectomized patients with myasthenia gravis (MG).MethodsThis study is a post hoc analysis of data from a randomized trial of thymectomy in MG (Thymectomy Trial in Non-Thymomatous Myasthenia Gravis Patients Receiving Prednisone Therapy [MGTX]). MGTX was a multicenter, randomized, rater-blinded 3-year trial that was followed by a voluntary 2-year extension for patients with acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody–positive MG without thymoma. Patients were randomized 1:1 to thymectomy plus prednisone vs prednisone alone. Participants were age 18–65 years at enrollment with disease duration less than 5 years. All patients received oral prednisone titrated up to 100 mg on alternate days until they achieved MMS, which prompted a standardized prednisone taper as long as MMS was maintained. The achievement rate of sustained MMS (no symptoms of MG for 6 months) with complete withdrawal of prednisone was compared between the thymectomy plus prednisone and prednisone alone groups.ResultsPatients with MG in the thymectomy plus prednisone group achieved sustained MMS with complete withdrawal of prednisone more frequently (64% vs 38%) and quickly compared to the prednisone alone group (median time 30 months vs no median time achieved, p < 0.001) over the 5-year study period. Prednisone-associated adverse symptoms were more frequent in the prednisone alone group and distress level increased with higher doses of prednisone.ConclusionsThymectomy benefits patients with MG by increasing the likelihood of achieving sustained MMS with complete withdrawal of identifierNCT00294658.Classification of evidenceThis study provides Class II evidence that for patients with generalized MG with AChR antibody, those receiving thymectomy plus prednisone are more likely to attain sustained MMS and complete prednisone withdrawal than those on prednisone alone.

2019 ◽  
Vol 130 (10) ◽  
pp. e224
Chee Geap Tay ◽  
Chin Seng Gan ◽  
Anna Marie Nathan ◽  
Masita Arip ◽  
Chee Ming The ◽  

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